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- The Book of Yields Accuracy in Food Costing and Purchasing
- The Book of Yields Accuracy in Food Costing and Purchasing
- Yield curve
A standard recipe served in standard portions has a standard portion cost. A standard portion cost is simply the cost of the ingredients and sometimes labor found in a standard recipe divided by the number of portions produced by the recipe. Standard portion costs change when food costs change, which means that standard portion costs should be computed and verified regularly, particularly in times of high inflation.
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In finance , the yield curve is a curve showing several yields to maturity or interest rates across different contract lengths 2 month, 2 year, 20 year, etc. The curve shows the relation between the level of the interest rate or cost of borrowing and the time to maturity , known as the "term", of the debt for a given borrower in a given currency.
The U. Treasury securities for various maturities are closely watched by many traders, and are commonly plotted on a graph such as the one on the right, which is informally called "the yield curve". Yield curves are usually upward sloping asymptotically : the longer the maturity, the higher the yield, with diminishing marginal increases that is, as one moves to the right, the curve flattens out.
There are two common explanations for upward sloping yield curves. First, it may be that the market is anticipating a rise in the risk-free rate. If investors hold off investing now, they may receive a better rate in the future. Therefore, under the arbitrage pricing theory , investors who are willing to lock their money in now need to be compensated for the anticipated rise in rates—thus the higher interest rate on long-term investments.
Another explanation is that longer maturities entail greater risks for the investor i. A risk premium is needed by the market, since at longer durations there is more uncertainty and a greater chance of catastrophic events that impact the investment. This explanation depends on the notion that the economy faces more uncertainties in the distant future than in the near term. This effect is referred to as the liquidity spread. If the market expects more volatility in the future, even if interest rates are anticipated to decline, the increase in the risk premium can influence the spread and cause an increasing yield.
The opposite position short-term interest rates higher than long-term can also occur. For instance, in November , the yield curve for UK Government bonds was partially inverted. The yield for the year bond stood at 4.
The market's anticipation of falling interest rates causes such incidents. Negative liquidity premiums can also exist if long-term investors dominate the market, but the prevailing view is that a positive liquidity premium dominates, so only the anticipation of falling interest rates will cause an inverted yield curve.
Strongly inverted yield curves have historically preceded economic recessions. The shape of the yield curve is influenced by supply and demand : for instance, if there is a large demand for long bonds, for instance from pension funds to match their fixed liabilities to pensioners, and not enough bonds in existence to meet this demand, then the yields on long bonds can be expected to be low, irrespective of market participants' views about future events.
The yield curve may also be flat or hump-shaped, due to anticipated interest rates being steady, or short-term volatility outweighing long-term volatility. Yield curves continually move all the time that the markets are open, reflecting the market's reaction to news.
A further " stylized fact " is that yield curves tend to move in parallel i. There is no single yield curve describing the cost of money for everybody. The most important factor in determining a yield curve is the currency in which the securities are denominated. The economic position of the countries and companies using each currency is a primary factor in determining the yield curve.
Different institutions borrow money at different rates, depending on their creditworthiness. The yield curves corresponding to the bonds issued by governments in their own currency are called the government bond yield curve government curve. These yield curves are typically a little higher than government curves.
They are the most important and widely used in the financial markets, and are known variously as the LIBOR curve or the swap curve. The construction of the swap curve is described below. These are constructed from the yields of bonds issued by corporations.
Since corporations have less creditworthiness than most governments and most large banks, these yields are typically higher. Corporate yield curves are often quoted in terms of a "credit spread" over the relevant swap curve. From the post- Great Depression era to the present, the yield curve has usually been "normal" meaning that yields rise as maturity lengthens i. This positive slope reflects investor expectations for the economy to grow in the future and, importantly, for this growth to be associated with a greater expectation that inflation will rise in the future rather than fall.
This expectation of higher inflation leads to expectations that the central bank will tighten monetary policy by raising short-term interest rates in the future to slow economic growth and dampen inflationary pressure. It also creates a need for a risk premium associated with the uncertainty about the future rate of inflation and the risk this poses to the future value of cash flows.
Investors price these risks into the yield curve by demanding higher yields for maturities further into the future.
In a positively sloped yield curve, lenders profit from the passage of time since yields decrease as bonds get closer to maturity as yield decreases, price increases ; this is known as rolldown and is a significant component of profit in fixed-income investing i.
However, a positively sloped yield curve has not always been the norm. Through much of the 19th century and early 20th century the US economy experienced trend growth with persistent deflation , not inflation. During this period the yield curve was typically inverted, reflecting the fact that deflation made current cash flows less valuable than future cash flows.
During this period of persistent deflation, a 'normal' yield curve was negatively sloped. Historically, the year Treasury bond yield has averaged approximately two percentage points above that of three-month Treasury bills.
In situations when this gap increases e. This type of curve can be seen at the beginning of an economic expansion or after the end of a recession. Here, economic stagnation will have depressed short-term interest rates; however, rates begin to rise once the demand for capital is re-established by growing economic activity.
In January , the gap between yields on two-year Treasury notes and year notes widened to 2. A flat yield curve is observed when all maturities have similar yields, whereas a humped curve results when short-term and long-term yields are equal and medium-term yields are higher than those of the short-term and long-term.
A flat curve sends signals of uncertainty in the economy. This mixed signal can revert to a normal curve or could later result into an inverted curve. It cannot be explained by the Segmented Market theory discussed below. Under unusual circumstances, investors will settle for lower yields associated with low-risk long term debt if they think the economy will enter a recession in the near future. Investors who had purchased year Treasuries in would have received a safe and steady yield until , possibly achieving better returns than those investing in equities during that volatile period.
Economist Campbell Harvey 's dissertation  showed that an inverted yield curve accurately forecasts U. An inverted curve has indicated a worsening economic situation in the future eight times since In addition to potentially signaling an economic decline, inverted yield curves also imply that the market believes inflation will remain low. This is because, even if there is a recession, a low bond yield will still be offset by low inflation.
However, technical factors, such as a flight to quality or global economic or currency situations, may cause an increase in demand for bonds on the long end of the yield curve, causing long-term rates to fall.
Falling long-term rates in the presence of rising short-term rates is known as "Greenspan's Conundrum". The slope of the yield curve is one of the most powerful predictors of future economic growth, inflation, and recessions. Louis Fed.
An inverted yield curve is often a harbinger of recession. A positively sloped yield curve is often a harbinger of inflationary growth. Work by Arturo Estrella and Tobias Adrian has established the predictive power of an inverted yield curve to signal a recession. Their models show that when the difference between short-term interest rates they use 3-month T-bills and long-term interest rates year Treasury bonds at the end of a federal reserve tightening cycle is negative or less than 93 basis points positive, a rise in unemployment usually occurs.
All the recessions in the US since have been preceded by an inverted yield curve year vs 3-month. Over the same time frame, every occurrence of an inverted yield curve has been followed by recession as declared by the NBER business cycle dating committee.
Estrella and others have postulated that the yield curve affects the business cycle via the balance sheet of banks or bank-like financial institutions. When the yield curve is upward sloping, banks can profitably take-in short term deposits and make new long-term loans so they are eager to supply credit to borrowers. This eventually leads to a credit bubble. There are three main economic theories attempting to explain how yields vary with maturity. Two of the theories are extreme positions, while the third attempts to find a middle ground between the former two.
This hypothesis assumes that the various maturities are perfect substitutes and suggests that the shape of the yield curve depends on market participants' expectations of future interest rates.
It assumes that market forces will cause the interest rates on various terms of bonds to be such that the expected final value of a sequence of short-term investments will equal the known final value of a single long-term investment.
If this did not hold, the theory assumes that investors would quickly demand more of the current short-term or long-term bonds whichever gives the higher expected long-term yield , and this would drive down the return on current bonds of that term and drive up the yield on current bonds of the other term, so as to quickly make the assumed equality of expected returns of the two investment approaches hold.
Using this, futures rates , along with the assumption that arbitrage opportunities will be minimal in future markets, and that futures rates are unbiased estimates of forthcoming spot rates, provide enough information to construct a complete expected yield curve.
For example, if investors have an expectation of what 1-year interest rates will be next year, the current 2-year interest rate can be calculated as the compounding of this year's 1-year interest rate by next year's expected 1-year interest rate.
This theory is consistent with the observation that yields usually move together. However, it fails to explain the persistence in the shape of the yield curve. Shortcomings of expectations theory include that it neglects the interest rate risk inherent in investing in bonds.
The liquidity premium theory is an offshoot of the pure expectations theory. The liquidity premium theory asserts that long-term interest rates not only reflect investors' assumptions about future interest rates but also include a premium for holding long-term bonds investors prefer short term bonds to long term bonds , called the term premium or the liquidity premium. This premium compensates investors for the added risk of having their money tied up for a longer period, including the greater price uncertainty.
Because of the term premium, long-term bond yields tend to be higher than short-term yields and the yield curve slopes upward. Long term yields are also higher not just because of the liquidity premium, but also because of the risk premium added by the risk of default from holding a security over the long term. The market expectations hypothesis is combined with the liquidity premium theory:.
The preferred habitat theory is a variant of the liquidity premium theory, and states that in addition to interest rate expectations, investors have distinct investment horizons and require a meaningful premium to buy bonds with maturities outside their "preferred" maturity, or habitat.
Proponents of this theory believe that short-term investors are more prevalent in the fixed-income market, and therefore longer-term rates tend to be higher than short-term rates, for the most part, but short-term rates can be higher than long-term rates occasionally.
This theory is consistent with both the persistence of the normal yield curve shape and the tendency of the yield curve to shift up and down while retaining its shape. This theory is also called the segmented market hypothesis. In this theory, financial instruments of different terms are not substitutable. As a result, the supply and demand in the markets for short-term and long-term instruments is determined largely independently. Prospective investors decide in advance whether they need short-term or long-term instruments.
If investors prefer their portfolio to be liquid, they will prefer short-term instruments to long-term instruments.
Therefore, the market for short-term instruments will receive a higher demand. Higher demand for the instrument implies higher prices and lower yield.
The Book of Yields Accuracy in Food Costing and Purchasing
In finance , the yield curve is a curve showing several yields to maturity or interest rates across different contract lengths 2 month, 2 year, 20 year, etc. The curve shows the relation between the level of the interest rate or cost of borrowing and the time to maturity , known as the "term", of the debt for a given borrower in a given currency. The U. Treasury securities for various maturities are closely watched by many traders, and are commonly plotted on a graph such as the one on the right, which is informally called "the yield curve". Yield curves are usually upward sloping asymptotically : the longer the maturity, the higher the yield, with diminishing marginal increases that is, as one moves to the right, the curve flattens out. There are two common explanations for upward sloping yield curves.
Objective Radiochimica Acta RCA publishes manuscripts encompassing chemical aspects of nuclear science and technology. The journal is meant for scientists who are actively engaged in research work. Article formats Original Papers, Review Articles, and Rapid Communications short communications of more timely interest. EN English Deutsch. Your documents are now available to view. Confirm Cancel. De Gruyter
This chart gives Chefs and Kitchen Managers the yield percentage of various produce after trim loss. Use the produce yield chart to calculate your food cost and ordering more accurately. Trim loss includes: seeds, skins, stems, etc. If you have additional yield info for other produce items then leave a comment below so they can be added to the chart. Comments from before Site Migration. Add a Comment!
The Book of Yields Accuracy in Food Costing and Purchasing
Within several hours, foliar treatment with methanol resulted in increased turgidity. In the shade and when winter crops were treated with methanol, plants showed no improvement of growth. When repeatedly treated with nutrient-supplemented methanol, shaded plants showed symptoms of toxicity.
Homotopy type theory is a new branch of mathematics that combines aspects of several different fields in a surprising way. It is based on a recently discovered connection between homotopy theory and type theory. The present book is intended as a first systematic exposition of the basics of univalent foundations, and a collection of examples of this new style of reasoning — but without requiring the reader to know or learn any formal logic, or to use any computer proof assistant. We have released the book under a permissive Creative Commons licence which allows everyone to participate and improve it.
The Book of Yields: Accuracy in Food Costing and Purchasing now in its eighth edition is a chef's best resource for planning and preparing food more quickly and accurately. It is the foodservice manager's most powerful tool for controlling costs. This new edition combines yield information with information on wholesale food prices, worksheets for costing ingredients, and worksheets for planning food purchases. It is constructed with a durable comb binding that allows it to lay flat while readers work in the kitchen.
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