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- Spiritism: The Work of Allan Kardec and Its Implications for Spiritual Transformation
- Book Of Mediums Allan Kardec
- SPIRITIST BOOKS
- Allan Kardec and the Development of a Research Program in Psychic Experiences
Explore Now. Spiritism soon spread to other countries, having today 35 countries represented in the International Spiritist Council.
Spiritism: The Work of Allan Kardec and Its Implications for Spiritual Transformation
He accepted that fraud, hallucination, unconscious cerebration and thought reflection could explain many phenomena regarded as mediumistic. However, when mediumistic phenomena were studied as a whole, the best explanation would be the spiritist hypothesis, a spiritual origin for the phenomena. Some guidelines he proposed to advance scientific research in psychical phenomena were: to use methods appropriate to the subject of investigation, to avoid both sterile skepticism and credulity, to be open to the novel, and to heed the need for a comprehensive and diversified empirical basis.
He stressed the importance of theory for a scientific research program, and that facts are not enough to create certainty. Deeper studies on aspects of Kardec's work and life are warranted.
In both fields there is imprecise information and misunderstandings concerning his work with psychic experiences Fodor, ; Melton, This medium had worked with Kardec but later had 1 Although recognizing the possibility of specificities for each term, in this paper I will use quite liberally and interchangeably the words psychical, parapsychological and mediumistic to refer to the body of phenomena studied by parapsychology, psychical research, and spiritism. Alvarado has previously called attention to the fact that parapsychologists throughout the 20th century have held imprecise and dismissive views of spiritualists and spiritists.
From to , he studied in Switzerland at the world famous Yverdon Institute, directed by Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, the well-known Swiss pedagogue and educational reformer who proposed the development of a science of education and emphasized that education should foster the individual's faculties to think for himself.
From his return to Paris in until his first contact with mediumistic phenomena in , Rivail worked mainly as an educator and writer, who published approximately 21 texts about education and schoolbooks on topics such as grammar and arithmetic.
Rivail founded schools and worked as both a translator and teacher. Rivail always emphasized freethinking, religious tolerance, and the need for using reasoning and scientific knowledge.
In fact, it was among people involved with magnetism that Rivail had his first contacts with mediumistic phenomena in It was a magnetizer, Mr. Fortier, who first told Rivail, about turning tables. Some months later, Rivail heard the claiming that tables could not just move but also answer questions. It was necessary therefore to act not lightly, but, rather, with circumspection, to be positive rather than idealistic, so as not to be carried away by illusions.
Since then, regarding issues related to Spiritism, Rivail started to be known as Allan Kardec. Kardec directed the society and the journal until his death in He assumed that every phenomenon that happens in nature must have a natural explanation following some kind of natural law suitable to scientific investigation.
Kardec stressed several times that we should be very careful in attributing to spirits all sorts of phenomena that are unusual or that we do not understand. When an extraordinary phenomenon is produced — we insist — the first thought should be about a natural cause, because it is the most frequent and the most probable.
Some facts of a new order present themselves, which cannot be explained by known laws. It teaches us to observe, compare … , deduces the consequences, and seeks for useful applications; it establishes no preconceived theory. It is rigorously exact to declare that Spiritism is a science of observation, and not the product of imagination. Not until its studies were based on experimental methods did the sciences begin to make serious progress. They sometimes contain some brief case reports or empirical evidence to support the theory.
He presented case reports and other empirical evidence in the Revue Spirite. In that journal he described many cases witnessed by him or by one of his many correspondents around the world. These cases were usually not reported in as detailed a manner as was usual later at the Society for Psychical Research. He used to present reports and to discuss possible explanations of all sorts of physical and mental mediumistic manifestations. He regularly presented hypotheses in the Revue to be tested and analyzed by its readers.
Many texts and theories first published at the Revue were later published in a developed form in one of his books Kardec, i; He stressed that it is necessary to be always aware of the possibility of fraud and one should denounce it without ceremony. This having been said, Kardec denied that trickery could explain all kinds of observations. Otherwise, I translated from French original and Portuguese versions. When necessary to improve fidelity to French originals, I made some changes to passages from published English versions when necessary to improve fidelity to French originals.
Hallucination Kardec accepted that superstitious or credulous persons often accept as psychic experiences what actually are hallucinations due to a physiological cause. But he stressed that hallucination can not explain all kinds of anomalous perceptions.
Between the middle of the XIX century to the beginning of the XX century, it was common to consider mediums and anyone involved with spiritualism as mentally insane. Physical Cause As explained in the previous section, physical cause was the first explanation raised by Kardec when he was told about table turning.
Is it possible to accept that a fluid produces these phenomena unless one admits that there must be an intelligent fluid? This impossibility becomes still more evident when two or three persons place their fingers at the same time on the same basket, for a truly phenomenal concordance of movements and of thoughts would be required between them, in order to produce, on the part of each, the same reply to the question asked.
We have therefore to inquire, first, from what quarter the mediums can have derived a hypothesis which had no existence in the thought of any one on earth? And, secondly, by what strange coincidence can it have happened that thousands of mediums, scattered over the entire globe, and utterly unknown to one another, all agree in asserting the same thing? Miscellaneous Theories Kardec also discussed a number of other theories developed to explain mediumistic manifestations: cracking-muscle, collective soul a kind of collective unconsciousness , pessimist theory only the devil could communicate , optimist theory only good spirits , and the unispiritist or monospiritist theory only the Holy Spirit.
We will not discuss them HERE because of space constraints. As transcribed above, Kardec describes that the mediumistic manifestations themselves proposed the theory that the source of those phenomena were extra- corporeal intelligences, i. We should always use reason and empirical evidence to judge any theory, proposed by mediums in trance or those in more normal states of consciousness.
Following are some phenomena that occurred that encouraged Kardec to accept the survival hypothesis as the best explanation.
He proposed several guidelines that may be useful for contemporary researchers. Some examples are: The use of methods appropriate to the subject of investigation Kardec believed it is not appropriate to borrow, with no adaptation, research methods from physical sciences such as physics and chemistry , because the latter deal with inert matter.
In the investigation of mediumship we are dealing with an intelligent phenomenon. Spiritist phenomena have, as agents, intelligent beings who have independence and freewill, who are not subject to our caprices, and who, therefore, escape laboratory experimentation and calculations, remaining outside the domain of physical sciences.
Scientists deceived themselves when they attempted to experiment with spirits as they experiment with voltaic batteries. They were unsuccessful, as they well should, because they presupposed an analogy that does not hold. Then, without going any further, they concluded, by negation, that spirits do not exist. One cannot give orders to spirits; it is necessary to await their will.
The sought-after phenomenon will happen when one least expects it. To the eyes of the assiduous observer the events will be countless and will corroborate one another, but he who believes that touching the crank is sufficient to make the machine go deceives himself completely.
What does a naturalist do when he wishes to study the habits of an animal? Does he command it to do a certain thing, so as to observe it at his will? No, because he knows well that the animal will not obey him. He observes the spontaneous behavior of the animal and records them when they take place.
Simple good sense dictates that one must proceed in the same way with the spirits, particularly since they are intelligent beings with more independence than animals. For instance, J. This appears to be especially true among skeptics of the paranormal as a whole and in the controversy regarding survival research Cook, ; Ducasse, ; Moreira-Almeida, ; Richet, ; Rhine, He said that this was the case when he accepted the theory of reincarnation Kardec, h; a.
Going hand in hand with progress, Spiritism will never be superseded, since if new discoveries happen to show that it is in error on any point, it would modify itself on that point" Kardec, Unfortunately, enthusiasm finds it hard to reflect, and is apt to get dazed. Such adherents are more hurtful than useful to the cause of spiritism; they are unfit to convince, because their judgment is not trustworthy; they become the easy dupes, either of spirits who play tricks on them, or of men who take advantage of their credulity.
The need for a comprehensive and diversified empirical basis Kardec often stated the need for a wide and diversified empirical base. Kardec requested that reports of mediumistic manifestations from all over the world be sent to him Kardec, i.
Preconceived objections should be first addressed, after that, one should move gradually from what is well known and accepted to more challenging topics. This strategy was also used some decades later by Frederic Myers ; Kelly et al.
The more extraordinary these phenomena are, and the more they diverge from ordinary experience, the more opposition they encounter; and this, for the very simple reason, that we are naturally prone to doubt whatever has not a rational sanction; each man regarding such a matter from his own point of view, and interpreting it in his own way. Those, who begin by an explanation, comprehend before they have seen. Since one has acquired the certainty that the phenomena are possible, the conviction of their reality is easily arrived at.
However, if it is understood, it is soon acknowledged as rational, and its marvelous or supernatural character just vanishes. In addition to this lack of awareness, there are also several misunderstandings and incorrect facts regarding his life and studies.
We are not aware of any academic study focused on Kardec or his works. There is evidence that Kardec deserves to be remembered as a French intellectual who developed pioneering research on mediumistic and other psychic phenomena. He was one of the first to propose and to pursue a scientific approach to a subject that used to be considered metaphysical or unsuitable for an empirical and rational investigation.
He advanced the main theories to explain paranormal experiences that are still debated in parapsychology today. He also produced several very informative discussions on epistemological and methodological aspects of scientific exploration of psychical phenomena.
More and deeper studies on aspects of Kardec's work and life are warranted. Chibeni, Emma Bragdon, and Dora Incontri for their helpful comments on earlier versions of this paper. Research on the historical origin of the reincarnation speculations of French spiritualists. The Spiritualist Newspaper, pp. Almeida, A.
Book Of Mediums Allan Kardec
It is intended to be an actual handbook for would-be mediums, containing doctrine and practices that one must master in order to become a medium , an elementary course on theories and basic methods to assess the new light that had never been tried by rational inquiry before: the interaction of the physical and spiritual worlds. The Book on Mediums set the bases and the terminology that guided Parapsychology and Paranormality for quite sometime. In its pages one will find a classification of paranormal phenomena, with a special focus on those capable of communicating messages, and thorough descriptions of the mechanisms that — according to Spiritism — were involved. It also contains serious warnings against unguided use of the gift of mediumship , especially without the necessary seriousness. The book's signature is its focus on theory instead of practice: not a single line of ritual is given Spiritists believe all rituals are superfluous , unless one consider recommendations for prayer without giving formulae as "ritual". In its first part, there is an overall introduction to the fundamental points of Spiritism. The following topics are examined within the book:.
A companion to his first book, The Spirits' Guide, The Book on Mediums explains how to apply Allan Kardec's principles of his practical science of spiritism in order to become a medium. Retrouvez The Mediums' Book et des millions de livres en stock sur evaklycheva. Who Was Allan Kardec? The Mediums' Book sees Allan Kardec introduce and explain how human beings can communicate with the vast spiritual realm. Through this book, we learn how to contact spirits of human ancestors, and identify both the good and evil among them. An excellent book of spiritual guidance, Kardec explains the methods of mediumship.
Who is allan kardec? Satisfaction guaranteed. Heaven and hell was published in Kardec intentionally named this book after the quintessential work of philospher and theologian emanuel swedenborg entitled heaven and hell Divided into two parts, heaven and hellis split between spirit answers about heaven and hell including the positives that allan kardec mediums book pdf the soul is eternal, death is not definitive and how there is always hope when life is viewed under the auspices of the soul cycle. You can download allan kardec mediums book pdf a copy of heaven and hell by clicking here. You can buy a hard copy of heaven and hell by clicking here.
E-Book PDF (English). The Mediums' Book – Allan Kardec A discussion of the means of communicating with the invisible world, the development of mediumship.
This debate has often been characterized by radicalism and mutual denial. As another consequence of the contemporary emphasis on rationality and empirically based knowledge, building a strong and acceptable base to support the spiritual aspect of life as well as ethics has remained a huge challenge. Although the current debate on science and spirituality has discussed several important topics, it usually does not touch the scientific investigation of certain claims about the spirit its existence, survival after bodily death, reincarnation, etc. However, this was not always the case.
Allan Kardec and the Development of a Research Program in Psychic Experiences
He is the author of the five books known as the Spiritist Codification, and is the founder of Spiritism. In the nineteenth century, books were occasionally written "Spirits in the material world": Spiritualism and identity in the fin de siecle spirit is clothed in temporary flesh derived from the medium's own body. Second and more importantly, in terms of Karl Mannheim's classic definition of the utopian. It is the widely respected follow up to The Spirits Book which was published of five books that Kardec wrote that are collectively known as the 'Spiritist Codification'.
It was the first and remains the most important spiritist book, because it addresses in first hand all questions developed subsequently by Allan Kardec. It is intended to demonstrate that Spiritism clarifies and extends the most important teachings of Jesus. The book, the best documented and the most organised of the five fundamental works of Kardecist Spiritism, contains one introductory part and 28 chapters. The Gospel contains the essence of the moral teachings of Christ, thus providing a foundation under which followers of all religions — even those who profess no religion at all — can gather, for it offers a sure guide for our inner transformation, which, according to Christ, is indispensable for us to find future happiness and inner peace, a state that is possible for the spirit on its evolutionary journey to God only by complying fully with the divine laws. What Is Spiritism? Its central subjects are the following. Also, being the tome in which the experimental and investigative features of the doctrine were presented, explained and taught.
The Book on Mediums or Mediums and Evokers' Handbook is a book by Allan Kardec published in , second of the five Fundamental Works of Spiritism.