classroom interaction and social learning from theory to practice pdf

Classroom Interaction And Social Learning From Theory To Practice Pdf

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Social Learning Theories. He who loves practice without theory is like the sailor who boards ship without a rudder and compass and never knows where he may cast. In this chapter we provide an overview of the major learning theories that influence the development of social learning activity, culture, and research.

Classroom Interaction, Situated Learning

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Whereas the previous chapter reviewed cognitive aspects of literacy and content learning, this chapter examines research related to a variety of social factors involved in school learning.

It is clear that children may arrive at school ready to learn in a number of different ways. One way is to have high levels of language, emergent literacy, and world knowledge acquired at home or in preschool. Equally important, though, is readiness in the emotional, social, and motivational realms: the ability to adapt to the new constraints of the classroom, the social skills that are needed to participate effectively in classroom discourse, and the self-esteem and sense of agency required to work hard and learn intentionally.

School learning is a social as well as a cognitive process, one influenced by the relationships between student and teacher and among students. Furthermore, what children learn at school is not exclusively academic content; schools are designed to make children productive citizens who are respectful of the diversity of their society.

While there has been a great deal of research on the social and motivational determinants of school success for mainstream children, attention to these matters with regard to language-minority children has focused more on issues of mismatch between the social rules these children bring from home and those that obtain in the classroom. In this chapter, we identify some of the salient themes in research on social factors as related to academic achievement for language-minority children.

This section reviews the findings of research on social factors in school learning in five areas: the social nature of knowledge acquisition, the issue of. Were we to focus only on issues examined in the previous chapter, such as the nature of understanding across subject matter, the various forms of knowledge learners possess, and the way prior knowledge influences the acquisition of new knowledge, we would be ignoring a vital aspect of school learning: the fact that most learning occurs in a social context in which individual actions and understandings are negotiated by the members of a group.

There are two theoretical perspectives on the locus of this negotiation. In contrast, the social perspective is based on sociocultural theories of learning that emphasize the role of social interaction with more knowledgeable others Vygotsky, and activity-oriented work in a social setting Leont'ev, While there has been a tradition of debate over the relative accuracy of these perspectives in depicting learning processes, recent work suggests it may be more profitable to determine when and how the two perspectives might work together to describe student learning Bereiter, ; Cobb, We focus here not on this debate, but on the context of negotiation as related to the social nature of learning.

We propose that in a classroom learning situation, negotiation occurs within at least two domains: the rules for how to talk in the classroom and the construction of actual content knowledge through talk. It is from the interpretation of these negotiations that students construct their own knowledge and understanding. However, it is typically the teacher who, either implicitly or explicitly, initiates negotiation across these dimensions.

The process of negotiating the way classroom participants will talk about subject matter is of concern for researchers from a sociocultural perspective because participation in situated cultures of practice is assumed to be an important influence on an individual's academic performance. Thus, students who understand that a teacher's question about a text requests an explanation for their interpretation rather than the literal interpretation itself will participate more effectively in that classroom's practice.

Research on learning outside the classroom has demonstrated the extent to which context influences the nature of such learning for any given individual Brown et al.

Classroom participants similarly. To date, these issues have not been addressed systematically in the study of student learning across subject matter domains. However, they have obvious implications for second-language education, in part because negotiating these matters is much more difficult in a second language and in part because the negotiated rules are likely to be heavily influenced by culture.

Ideally, conclusions about cultural mismatch in the negotiation of talk are based on observations of children both at home and at school. One such study was conducted by Philips in the homes and classrooms of Native American students.

Using an ethnographic approach to the study of language-use practices among Warm Springs Indian children, Philips identified and described the different participant structures to which the children had access in home, community, and school settings. She found that the children's verbal participation was much greater in classrooms whose participant structures were similar to those used routinely in their homes and community.

Both Gee a, b and Michaels have focused on the social meaning of children's own discourse forms, both as effective ways of expressing their own intentions and as forms that lead to miscommunication with and negative reactions from teachers. Michaels analyzed the sharing-time turns of an African-American child, identifying the culturally specific pattern of story telling she used and the ways it violated the rules for sharing time imposed by the teacher see also Gee, , The mismatches identified by Gee and Michaels make access to full participation in educational interactions more difficult for the speakers of the less-valued discourse forms.

Other studies leading to conclusions about cultural mismatch have been conducted exclusively in classroom settings; these are of the type Cazden identifies as the ''culturally different case," that is, comparison with an assumed mainstream pattern of interaction. The latter teacher's reading lessons were characterized by discourse patterns that resembled those identified in studies of native Hawaiian teachers Au, and children Boggs, This teacher's students engaged in the kinds of collaborative and overlapping talk that are characteristic of talk story, a native Hawaiian joint story-telling event.

The students taught by this teacher performed better on several verbal measures related to academic engagement and reading ability amount of academically engaged time, number of reading-related. Gutierrez et al. Other studies focusing on enactments of sociocultural pedagogy in schools and classrooms have investigated efforts to incorporate into classrooms features of learning and talking that are characteristic of the homes and communities of English-language learners.

Perhaps the most well-known such effort to make classroom instruction culturally responsive is the Kamehameha Early Education Program Au and Mason, , which incorporated the talk story format discussed above into literacy instruction, with positive results. In addition to negotiation of the rules for classroom talk, social practices for talking about a particular subject matter are negotiated by the participants, who thus are able to discuss the subject in a routine, predictable way.

For example, studies have demonstrated that students' text comprehension is improved when the classroom participants, both teachers and students, take an active role in constructing their understanding of the text through the techniques of questioning the author Beck et al.

Expert explanations have been found to facilitate student learning in history and mathematics for students of both low and high ability Leinhardt, To participate in an explanation, students must understand the goals of the explanation and their role in attaining those goals.

Students have the opportunity to learn the subject matter content through negotiations about that content during classroom discourse. Using the classroom as a social arena for the public examination of ideas accomplishes three important things: 1 students gradually gain competence in using terminology and in connecting actions and concepts within a discipline; 2 in the course of dialogue, students naturally build on or refute old ideas as these are merged with new knowledge; and 3 actions of discussion, proof, and explanation are merged with networks of concepts and principles that are part of a particular subject matter.

The examination of classroom discourse has informed research in primary-language content learning see Chapter 3 by focusing on how social interaction influences the nature of learning by classroom students. As the editors state in their introduction to the volume, these studies contribute to our understanding of "the ordinary. A central notion underlying these studies is that classroom discourse is both the process by which knowledge is constructed and the source of specific content, as well as the content of students' knowledge production.

Implicit in each study is the view of a dialectical process in which participants' interactions both shape and are shaped by a range of contextual forces.

It is this notion of dialectic and the way it contributes to the construction of knowledge that is implicit in the situated view of learning and the learner set forth in these studies. Many studies that focus on teaching and learning literacy in classrooms include an examination of the issues associated with a particular pedagogical perspective or practice.

Several of these studies have helped extend our understanding of the conditions that have led to variations in the way a particular approach is applied. For example, in her ethnographic study of journal sharing in nine different bilingual classrooms, Gutierrez , found that teachers shared one of three "scripts" or pedagogical views of writing.

Based on Gutierrez's descriptions, only one of these scripts provided enriched contexts for literacy learning in line with the tenets of sociocultural theory outlined above, that is, "contexts that give students both assistance and the occasions to use and write elaborated and meaningful discourse" p. A number of researchers have focused on a discussion format known as instructional conversation that is grounded in the Vygotskian notions of assisted performance e.

Instructional conversation contrasts markedly with the traditional teacher-fronted and skills-based approaches to instructional discourse most often available to language-minority students. Studies of this approach have shown that it is characterized by a thematic focus, teachers' efforts to build upon students' previous verbal contributions and experiences, and direct teaching.

Although the use of this approach in classroom settings has not been linked to formal assessment of student learning, evidence of learning may be gleaned from an examination of the instructional conversations themselves. For example, as teachers become more proficient with the format, student talk increases, as measured by the percentage of total turns they take and the mean turn length Patthey-Chavez and Goldenberg, ; Dalton and Sison, Similarly, research by Warren and Rosebery in two bilingual science classrooms has focused on the nature of the scientific discourse used by students and teachers and the extent to which students appropriate scientific ways of knowing and reasoning.

This research has tended to be quite detailed, focusing on a specific device or pattern. For example, in a recent article, Warren and Rosebery examine the role of argumentation in one of the classrooms. As they state in their introduction to this work, the intent of the study is to further articulate sociocultural theory on how science can be learned in classroom settings, using. Bakhtin's notion of dialogism as a filter for understanding this discourse sequence.

In their analysis of argumentation in a bilingual Haitian Creole science class, Warren and Rosebery focus on students' disagreements over scientific claims, how these disagreement sequences shape the students' scientific understanding, and more specifically what it means for a claim to be accountable to evidence. This interpretive approach to the analysis of a single discussion yields insights into how norms of scientific practice, as well as elements of scientific thinking, can be jointly constructed by students engaged in meaningful acts of inquiry.

What distinguishes Warren and Rosebery's research from many other interpretive studies is the attention they pay to student learning Rosebery et al. During interviews conducted in September and June, students were asked to think aloud about how they would research and explain two scientific dilemmas. The researchers' quantitative analyses revealed that the students had increased their appropriate uses of content knowledge and hypothesis statements by the time of the June interviews.

Their qualitative analyses showed that the students were better able to reason in terms of larger explanatory frameworks by June. Students who had solved problems with simplistic, unexplained conjectures in September were using their scientific understandings to generate hypotheses and experiments by the end of the school year.

The work of Moll and his colleagues Moll et al. Drawing on the principle that "the students' community represents a resource of enormous importance for educational change and improvement," teachers and researchers involved in his work have interviewed parents and other community members to identify the information and skills or "funds of knowledge" that are available to Mexicano households through an elaborate set of social networks that connects each household to other households and institutions.

Teacher-researchers participating in the project then organize their curriculum around this information and these skills.

In addition, they call upon the expertise of community members in their efforts to incorporate community-based knowledge sources into their curriculum. Ethnographic research that situates the school experiences of language-minority children within the context of culture, community, and society has. While much of this research has focused on those factors implicated in the difficulties students encounter in school, its overall message situates the issue of academic achievement within the context of the social environments in which students participate, consistent with the view that knowledge is socially constructed.

While cultural mismatch is one explanation for the relatively poor academic performance of language-minority children, another avenue of research, known in the literature as differential treatment studies, starts from the assumption that some of those children may not be socialized toward academic achievement.

This literature has contributed to the view that language-minority students, along with other ethnic minority students, are treated differently from mainstream students as a result of forces both within and outside of school that implicitly and explicitly promote and sustain the perspectives and institutions of the majority.

Ogbu, a primary contributor to this view Ogbu, ; Ogbu and Matute-Bianchi, , has focused on how societal forces have contributed to socialization and acculturation patterns that ultimately influence minority students' academic achievement.

Other researchers have concentrated on schools and classrooms when investigating the interaction among cultural, societal, and school influences on student achievement. Like cultural mismatch studies, differential treatment studies focus on different kinds of comparisons, including those within a single classroom e. As Losey reports, some of the early differential treatment studies include large-scale studies with many subjects, while more recent research has tended to take the form of ethnographic or qualitative accounts of a classroom or school.

The latter studies have shown how schools engage in a number of practices that favor the status quo by enabling middle- and upper-class English-speaking students to progress through an educational pipeline that is often inaccessible to low-income ethnic minority students, including those who are deemed to have limited English proficiency.

Studies that compare the experiences of language-minority students who have been successful in school with those who have had difficulties have provided important insights into the complex role played by culture and discrimination in the academic experiences of these students.

Despite the vivid and complex picture provided by these studies, it is often difficult to assess the degree to which differential treatment actually explains the circumstances faced by the groups under study. One major problem is operationalizing the term "underachievement" or "lower achievement" as used to.

Studies seldom rely on individually assessed data on learning outcomes, particularly as pertains to the students being studied, because such data are seen as part of the positivistic paradigm with which the researchers contrast themselves.

Instead, general descriptions of student underachievement i. Assessments of student learning tied to teachers' instructional goals are almost always lacking in these studies. Another related problem is the inability to determine whether a given set of circumstances is really the cause of the difficulty students encounter in school. This problem is most apparent in the mismatch studies, which leave an important question unanswered: Which of the differences are the important ones for explaining student underachievement?

The qualitative designs used in these studies do not establish causal connections between particular discontinuities and student learning. For most researchers working within this tradition, of course, this criticism is not a valid concern. The notion that achievement motivation may vary culturally has been supported by cross-national studies e.

In the United States, however, these ethnic differences are eliminated or even reversed: second-generation Korean American children attribute success to ability more than do European American children Choi et al.

Further analysis of the achievement motivation of Latino and Indochinese immigrant children suggests they have similar perceptions of parental socialization strategies and similar theories of educational success and failure.

Nonetheless, the Indochinese immigrants were found to perform better than the Latino children Bempechat and Williams, Moreover, Suarez-Orozco and Suarez-Orozco found that adolescents of Mexican descent showed higher academic achievement and orientation to academic achievement in the immigrant group than in later generations.

The Learning Classroom: Theory Into Practice

Vygotsky argued, "that language is the main tool that promotes thinking, develops reasoning, and supports cultural activities like reading and writing" Vygotsky As a result, instructional strategies that promote literacy across the curriculum play a significant role in knowledge construction as well as the combination of whole class leadership, individual and group coaching, and independent learning. Moreover, teachers need to provide the opportunity to students for a managed discussion about their learning. Discussion that has a purpose with substantive comments that build off each other and there is a meaningful exchange between students that results in questions that promote deeper understanding. Discussion-based classroom using socratic dialogue where the instructor manages the discourse can lead each student to feel like their contributions are valued resulting in increased student motivation. The teacher, or local topic expert, plays the important role of facilitator, creating the environment where directed and guided interactions can occur.

K-2 , , , A video course for K teachers; 13 half-hour video programs, print guide, and website. This video-based course is an exploration of learning theory — appropriate for grades K and all subject areas — for the training of preservice teachers and the professional development of inservice teachers. Hosted by Stanford University professor Linda Darling-Hammond, the 13 half-hour programs illustrate a variety of learning theories with applications to classroom practice. A website and print guide supplement the videos, with background readings, questions for discussion, and ongoing assignments that bring theory into practice.

The curriculum is one of the most effective tools for bridging the gap between education and development. However, there is little to no normative guidance on what constitutes a well-balanced responsive curriculum at different levels of education. Education systems and by implication curricula are under relentless pressure to demonstrate relevance and responsiveness to national, regional, and global development challenges. Research evidence on the nature of learning is impressively accumulating and at a fast pace. However, this impressively accumulating wealth of knowledge is not being effectively applied to improve practice in the facilitation of learning. While indispensable to quality improvement efforts, curriculum and learning depend on the effective and efficient functioning of other elements of an education system. A systemic approach is therefore required to analyse critical impediments and implement responsive interventions.

Today's classroom presents a wealth of opportunities for social interaction amongst pupils, leading to increased interest in teachers and researchers into.

Chapter 2. Social Learning Theories

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Whereas the previous chapter reviewed cognitive aspects of literacy and content learning, this chapter examines research related to a variety of social factors involved in school learning. It is clear that children may arrive at school ready to learn in a number of different ways. One way is to have high levels of language, emergent literacy, and world knowledge acquired at home or in preschool.

Social Learning Theory SLT is a theory of learning and social behavior which proposes that new behaviours can be acquired through observation and imitation. When a particular behaviour is rewarded regularly, it will most likely persist; conversely, if a particular behaviour is constantly punished, it will most likely desist. Bandura [6] developed a four-step pattern that combined a cognitive view and an operant view of learning. In essence, the individual notices something in the environment, the individual remembers what was noticed, the individual produces a behavior, and the environment delivers a consequence e.

Most influential theories of learning

Social learning (social pedagogy)

Discourse and Education pp Cite as. This article traces two phases of development in classroom interaction analysis research over the past nine decades, from the early roots —s to the developments from the s to the present. The article presents telling cases that are designed to make visible how different logics of inquiry guiding particular lines of inquiry have led to different understandings of the complex relationships of classroom interactions and the situated nature of learning s. The telling cases identify lines of inquiry that framed the field of the study of teaching, present contrastive analyses of instruments for observing classroom interactions, and provide descriptions of paradigms that move from the study of teaching to the study of the situated nature of the discursive construction of teaching-learning relationships. By presenting these telling cases, we make visible how the different lines of inquiry conceptualized the relationship of classroom interactions to the situated nature of learning. Skip to main content. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available.

Беккер спустился вниз, постоял, глядя на самолет, потом опустил глаза на пачку денег в руке. Постояв еще некоторое время в нерешительности, он сунул конверт во внутренний карман пиджака и зашагал по летному полю. Странное начало. Он постарался выкинуть этот эпизод из головы. Если повезет, он успеет вернуться и все же съездить с Сьюзан в их любимый Стоун-Мэнор. Туда и обратно, - повторил он.  - Туда и обратно.

Ты нужна. Яростная волна гнева захлестнула. Она снова услышала голос Дэвида: Я люблю. Беги. Внезапный прилив энергии позволил ей освободиться из объятий коммандера. Шум ТРАНСТЕКСТА стал оглушающим.

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