abo and rh blood group systems pdf

Abo And Rh Blood Group Systems Pdf

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Blood typing is a method to tell what type of blood you have. Blood typing is done so you can safely donate your blood or receive a blood transfusion. It is also done to see if you have a substance called Rh factor on the surface of your red blood cells.

Blood groups systems

The ABO blood group is the most important of all the blood group systems. These naturally occurring antibodies are mainly IgM immunoglobulins. They attack and rapidly destroy red cells carrying the corresponding antigen. If ABO incompatible red cells are transfused, red cell haemolysis can occur. There are more than 40 different kinds of Rh antigens.

International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research.

Rh blood group system

The Rh blood group system is a human blood group system. It contains proteins on the surface of red blood cells. It is the second most important blood group system, after the ABO blood group system. The Rh blood group system consists of 49 defined blood group antigens , [1] among which the five antigens D, C, c, E, and e are the most important. There is no d antigen. Rh D status of an individual is normally described with a positive or negative suffix after the ABO type e. Antibodies to Rh antigens can be involved in hemolytic transfusion reactions and antibodies to the Rh D and Rh antigens confer significant risk of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn.

ABO blood group system , the classification of human blood based on the inherited properties of red blood cells erythrocytes as determined by the presence or absence of the antigens A and B, which are carried on the surface of the red cells. See blood group. Blood containing red cells with type A antigen on their surface has in its serum fluid antibodies against type B red cells. In the same way, type A red cells will be destroyed by anti-A antibodies in type B blood. Type O blood can be injected into persons with type A, B, or O blood unless there is incompatibility with respect to some other blood group system also present.

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Major blood group sysytem-based on the agglutinogens on cell membrane,​present widely and causes severe transfusion reation. -ABO. -Rh system.


Blood Groups and Compatibilities

The Rh blood group system is a human blood group system. It contains proteins on the surface of red blood cells. It is the second most important blood group system, after the ABO blood group system.

ABO is the best-known system for grouping blood types , though there are other methods. Within these groups, there are a further eight blood types. Every 2 seconds , a person in the United States needs blood.

The molecular basis of RH system and its applications in obstetrics and transfusion medicine. The Rh system is the most polymorphic and immunogenic of all blood group systems. Currently, over 49 antigens have been identified, among which the five main antigens are D, C, c, E, e.

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The ABO blood group system is used to denote the presence of one, both, or neither of the A and B antigens on erythrocytes. In , he found that red blood cells would clump together agglutinate when mixed in test tubes with sera from different persons, and that some human blood also agglutinated with animal blood. The serum of healthy human beings not only agglutinates animal red cells, but also often those of human origin, from other individuals. It remains to be seen whether this appearance is related to inborn differences between individuals or it is the result of some damage of bacterial kind.

Neil D. Avent, Marion E. Reid; The Rh blood group system: a review. Blood ; 95 2 : — The Rh blood group system is one of the most polymorphic and immunogenic systems known in humans. In the past decade, intense investigation has yielded considerable knowledge of the molecular background of this system.


Up till now about red cells antigen have been identified. The majority are inherited by Mendelian fashion. The ABO and Rh blood group.


A blood type also known as a blood group is a classification of blood , based on the presence and absence of antibodies and inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells RBCs. These antigens may be proteins , carbohydrates , glycoproteins , or glycolipids , depending on the blood group system. Some of these antigens are also present on the surface of other types of cells of various tissues. Several of these red blood cell surface antigens can stem from one allele or an alternative version of a gene and collectively form a blood group system. Blood types are inherited and represent contributions from both parents.

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