File Name: definition and scope of industrial microbiology .zip
This chapter introduces the field of microbiology and discusses the importance of microorganisms not only as causative agents of disease but also as important contributors to food production, antibiotic manufacture, vaccine development, and environmental management. You are commenting using your WordPress.
Industrial microbiology is a branch of biotechnology that applies microbial sciences to create industrial products in mass quantities, often using microbial cell factories. There are multiple ways to manipulate a microorganism in order to increase maximum product yields. Introduction of mutations into an organism may be accomplished by introducing them to mutagens. Another way to increase production is by gene amplification, this is done by the use of plasmids, and vectors.
17.1A: Industrial Microorganisms
January 14, Some of these include the use of microorganisms to make the antibiotic, penicillin or the dairy product, yoghurt; the use of microorganisms to produce amino acids or enzymes are also examples of biotechnology. Developments in molecular biology in the last two decades or so, have vastly increased our understanding of the nucleic acids in the genetic processes. This has led to applications of biological manipulation at the molecular level in such technologies as genetic engineering.
Industrial microbiology may be defined as the study of the large-scale and profit motivated production of microorganisms or their products for direct use, or as inputs in the manufacture of other goods. Thus yeasts may be produced for direct consumption as food for humans or as animal feed, or for use in bread-making; their product, ethanol, may also be consumed in the form of alcoholic beverages, or used in the manufacture of perfumes, pharmaceuticals, etc.
Industrial microbiology is clearly a branch of biotechnology and includes the traditional and nucleic acid aspects. The boundaries between these sub-divisions are often blurred and are made only for convenience. Bearing this qualification in mind, the characteristics of industrial microbiology can be highlighted by comparing its features with those of another sub-division of microbiology,medical microbiology.
Industrial vs Medical Microbiology: The sub-disciplines of industrial microbiology and medical microbiology differ in at least three different ways. First is the immediate motivation: in industrial microbiology the immediate motivation is profit and the generation of wealth. In medical microbiology, the immediate concern of the microbiologist or laboratory worker is to offer expert opinion to the doctor about, for example the spectrum of antibiotic susceptibility of the microorganisms isolated from a diseased condition so as to restore the patient back to good health.
The generation of wealth is of course at the back of the mind of the medical microbiologist but restoration of the patient to good health is the immediate concern.
The second difference is that the microorganisms per se used in routine medical microbiology have little or no direct economic value, outside the contribution which they make to ensuring the return to good health of the patient who may then pay for the services.
The third difference between the two sub-disciplines is the scale at which the microorganisms are handled. In industrial microbiology, the scale is large and the organisms may be cultivated in fermentors as large as 50, liters or larger.
In routine medical microbiology the scale at which the pathogen is handled is limited to a loopful or a few milliliters.
If a pathogen which normally would have no economic value were to be handled on the large scale used in industrial microbiology, it would most probably be to prepare a vaccine against the pathogen. Multi-disciplinary or Team-work Nature of Industrial Microbiology: Unlike many other areas of the discipline of microbiology, the microbiologist in an industrial establishment does not function by himself.
He is usually only one of a number of different functionaries with whom he has to interact constantly. In a modern industrial microbiology organization these others may include chemical or production engineers, biochemists, economists, lawyers, marketing experts, and other high-level functionaries. They all cooperate to achieve the purpose of the firm, which is not philanthropy, at least not immediately but the generation of profit or wealth.
Some of his functions include: a. Indeed a microbiological method may be discarded entirely in favor of a cheaper chemical method. This was the case with ethanol for example which up till about was produced by fermentation. When cheaper chemical methods using petroleum as the substrate became available in about , fermentation ethanol was virtually abandoned.
From the mids the price of petroleum has climbed steeply. It has once again become profitable to produce ethanol by fermentation. Several countries notably Brazil, India and the United States have officially announced the production of ethanol by fermentation for blending into gasoline as gashol Free Communication of Procedures in Industrial Microbiology : Many procedures employed in industrial microbiology do not become public property for a long time because the companies which discover them either keep them secret, or else patent them.
For this reason, industrial microbiology textbooks often lag behind in describing methods employed in industry. For most patent laws an invention is patentable: a. For the purposes of the above: a. Patents cannot be validly obtained in respect of: a.
Principles and discoveries of a scientific nature are not necessarily inventions for the purposes of patent laws. In some cases it has been necessary to go to the law courts to decide whether or not an invention is patentable.
It is therefore advisable to obtain the services of an attorney specializing in patent law before undertaking to seek a patent. The laws are often so complicated that the layman, including the bench-bound microbiologist may, without proper guidance, leave out essential details which may invalidate his claim to his invention. The exact wording may vary, but the general ideas regarding patentability are the same around the world.
An examination of the patent laws of a number of countries will show that they often differ only in minor details. For example patents are valid in the UK and some other countries for a period of 20 years whereas they are valid in the United States for 17 years.
International laws have helped to bridge some of the differences among the patent practices of various countries. The Paris Convention for the protection of Industrial Property has been signed by several countries. This convention provides that each country guarantees to the citizens of other countries the same rights in patent matters as their own citizens. The treaty also provides for the right of priority in case of dispute.
Following from this, once an applicant has filed a patent in one of the member countries on a particular invention, he may within a certain time period apply for protection in all the other member countries. The latter application will then be regarded as having been filed on the same day as in the country of the first application.
Another international treaty signed in Washington, DC came into effect on 1 June, This latter treaty, the Patent Cooperation Treaty, facilitates the filing of patent applications in different countries by providing standard formats among other things. A wide range of microbiological inventions are generally recognized as patentable. Such items include vaccines, bacterial insecticides, and mycoherbicides. On 16 June, a case of immense importance to the course of industrial microbiology was decided in the United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals.
Ananda Chakrabarty then an employee of General Electric Company had introduced into a bacterium of the genus Pseudomonas two plasmids using techniques of genetic engineering discussed in Chapter 7 which enabled the new bacterium to degrade multiple components of crude oil. This single bacterium rather than a mixture of several would then be used for cleaning up oil spills. Claims to the invention were on three grounds. Process claims for the method of producing the bacteria b. Claims for an inoculum comprising an inert carrier and the bacterium c.
Claims to the bacteria themselves. The first two were easily accepted by the lower court but the third was not accepted on the grounds that i the organisms are products of nature and ii that as living things they are not patentable. As had been said earlier the Appeals Court reversed the earlier judgment of the lower court and established the patentability of organisms imbued with new properties through genetic engineering.
A study of the transcript of the decision of the Appeals Court and other patents highlights a number of points about the patentability of microorganisms. In other words it is the organism-inert material complex which is patented, not the organism itself.
It is the combination of the bacterial larvicide and the carrier which produced a unique patentable material, not the larvicide by itself. In this regard, when for example, a new antibiotic is patented, the organism producing it forms part of the useful process by which the antibiotic is produced.
Today most countries including those of the European Economic Community accept that the following are patentable: the creation of new plasmid vectors, isolation of new DNA restriction enzymes, isolation of new DNA-joining enzymes or ligases, creation of new recombinant DNA, creation of new genetically modified cells, means of introducing recombinant DNA into a host cell, creation of new transformed host cells containing recombinant DNA, a process for preparing new or known useful products with the aid of transformed cells, and novel cloning processes.
Patents resulting from the above were in general regarded as process, not substance, patents. The above terms all relate to genetic engineering and are discussed in Chapter 7. The rationale for the deposition of culture in a recognized culture collection is to provide permanence of the culture and ready availability to users of the patent.
The cultures must be pure and are usually deposited in lyophilized vials. The deposition of culture solves the problems of satisfying patent laws created by the nature of microbiology. In chemical patents the chemicals have to be described fully and no need exists to provide the actual chemical.
In microbiological patents, it is not very helpful to describe on paper how to isolate an organism even assuming that the isolate can be readily obtained, or indeed how the organism looks. More importantly, it is difficult to readily and accurately recognize a particular organism based on patent descriptions alone. Finally, since the organism is a part of the input of microbiological processes it must be available to a user of the patent information.
A fuller list is available in the World Directory of Cultures of Micro-organisms. Culture collections and methods for preserving microorganisms are discussed in Chapter 8 of this book. Fourth, where a microbiologist-inventor is an employee, the patent is usually assigned to the employer, unless some agreement is reached between them to the contrary. The patent for the oil-consuming Pseudomonas discussed earlier went to General Electric Company, not to its employee. Fifth, in certain circumstances it may be prudent not to patent the invention at all, but to maintain the discovery as a trade secret.
In cases where the patent can be circumvented by a minor change in the process without an obvious violation of the patent law it would not be wise to patent, but to maintain the procedure as a trade secret. Even if the nature of the compound produced by the microorganisms were not disclosed, it may be possible to discover its composition during the processes of certification which it must undergo in the hands of government analysts.
The decision whether to patent or not must therefore be considered seriously, consulting legal opinion as necessary. It is for this reason that some patents sometimes leave out minor but vital details. As much further detail as the patentee is willing to give must therefore be obtained when a patent is being considered seriously for use. In conclusion when all necessary considerations have been taken into account and it is decided to patent an invention, the decision must be pursued with vigor and with adequate degree of secrecy because as one patent law states: ….
The right to patent in respect of an invention is vested in the statutory inventor, that is to say that person who whether or not he is the true inventor, is the first to file… the patent application. Pokhara, Nepal. Post a Comment. Acidic dyes are not very often used in Microbiology lab. Neutral dyes stains nuc. Read more. February 11, There are two fundamentally different types of fixation. Common fixatives. February 03, Emphasized the abundance of these microorganisms..
Disproved the theory of Spontaneous Generation. Helped to improve the fermentation process during hi period in France.
Microbiology , study of microorganisms, or microbes, a diverse group of generally minute simple life-forms that include bacteria , archaea , algae , fungi , protozoa , and viruses. The field is concerned with the structure, function, and classification of such organisms and with ways of both exploiting and controlling their activities. The word microbe was coined in the last quarter of the 19th century to describe these organisms, all of which were thought to be related. As microbiology eventually developed into a specialized science, it was found that microbes are a very large group of extremely diverse organisms. Daily life is interwoven inextricably with microorganisms. In addition to populating both the inner and outer surfaces of the human body , microbes abound in the soil , in the seas, and in the air.
There are various types of microorganisms that are used for large-scale production of industrial items. Industrial microbiology includes the use of microorganisms to manufacture food or industrial products in large quantities. Numerous microorganisms are used within industrial microbiology; these include naturally occurring organisms, laboratory selected mutants, or even genetically modified organisms GMOs. Currently, the debate in the use of genetically modified organisms GMOs in food sources is gaining both momentum, with more and more supporters on both sides. The following is a brief overview of the various microorganisms that have industrial uses, and of the roles they play. Archaea are specific types of prokaryotic microbes that exhibit the ability to sustain populations in unusual and typically harsh environments.
Essentially, microbiology is the study of biological organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye without using such tools as the magnifying glass or microscope etc. Microbiology is therefore dedicated to studying the lives and characteristics of a wide variety of organisms ranging from bacteria and archaea to parasitic worms in their environments. Here, the discipline is used to learn about all aspects of the organisms in order to not only determine how they live in their environment, but also how they impact their respective surroundings and thus other organisms around them human beings, animals, etc. Microbiology has proved to be one of the most important disciplines in biology, making it possible to identify how some of these organisms cause diseases, discover cures for such diseases and even use some microbes for industrial purposes etc.
There are various types of microorganisms that are used for large-scale production of industrial items.
Сьюзан смотрела на него с сомнением. Стратмор пожал плечами: - Так или иначе, уже слишком поздно. Он разместил бесплатный образец Цифровой крепости на своем сайте в Интернете.
Еще через четыре месяца Энсей Танкадо приступил к работе в Отделении криптографии Агентства национальной безопасности США. Несмотря на солидный заработок, Танкадо ездил на службу на стареньком мопеде и обедал в одиночестве за своим рабочим столом, вместо того чтобы вместе с сослуживцами поглощать котлеты из телятины и луковый суп с картофелем - фирменные блюда местной столовой. Энсей пользовался всеобщим уважением, работал творчески, с блеском, что дано немногим. Он был добрым и честным, выдержанным и безукоризненным в общении. Самым главным для него была моральная чистота.
- Какой смысл хлестать мертвую кобылу. Парень был уже мертв, когда прибыла скорая. Они пощупали пульс и увезли его, оставив меня один на один с этим идиотом-полицейским.
Мозг Хейла лихорадочно работал.
ГЛАВА 37 Спустившись вниз, Беккер подошел к бару. Он совсем выбился из сил. Похожий на карлика бармен тотчас положил перед ним салфетку.
Она повернулась к монитору и показала на работающего Следопыта. - Я никуда не спешу. Стратмор сокрушенно вздохнул и начал мерить шагами комнату.
Росио покачала головой: - Это. Но вам ее не найти. Севилья - город большой и очень обманчивый.