File Name: steam boiler operation and maintenance .zip
- Boiler Operation & Maintenance
- Information Bulletin: Recommended maintenance and inspection for low pressure steam boilers
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Safety critical assessments and incident investigations are continuing, as per our mandate. More information here. Lack of routine inspection and proper maintenance for small low pressure not exceeding 15 psig steam boilers is widespread and one of the major causes of accidents, breakdowns and repairs.
Boiler Operation & Maintenance
To compile a detailed list of duties and responsibilities for personnel operating a boiler is difficult. Boiler operation often varies with the age and design of equipment, operating requirements, operating personnel changes and new concepts of how to treat recognized symptoms of trouble. A major responsibility of the operator is to keep the boilers in good operating condition. The primary concern in the operation of steam boilers, regardless of pressure or type, is safety.
Like any pressure vessel, boilers represent potential risks to personnel and property. Good operating practices result in the maximum reliability and efficiency. In the interest of safety, manufacturers, engineering societies, and most, important, governmental jurisdictions have set forth rules for steam boiler operation and preventive maintenance.
The engineers and boiler operators should be familiar with these rules specifically applying to their local situation. The objectives of Operation Management: Following should be the objectives of Operation Management: a. Operation of units at minimum partial loading and maximum availability.
Operation of units at rated parameters. Efficient Control of Water Chemistry. Operation of plant at minimum demineralised water makeup, consumption, auxiliary power consumption and coal consumption. Operation of plant and accessories at optimum efficiencies in sustained manner.
Key Operation Areas: There are eight primary areas of the boiler itself that should he examined or inspected regularly. Water level: The most important maintenance inspection is to check the boiler water level daily.
Insufficient water causes pressure vessel damage or failure. At a minimum, steel in the pressure vessel could overheat. The condition could change the pressure withholding capabilities of the vessel, necessitating vessel repair or replacement.
Boiler blow-down: Steam boilers should be blown down daily to maintain recommended dissolved solids levels and to remove sludge and sediment. As the boiler takes on makeup water the solids concentration builds up. Solids accumulate in either dissolved or suspended form. Unless they are controlled dissolved solids promote carryover of water with the steam causing water hammer and damaging piping, valves, or other equipment.
Carryover also raises the moisture content in the steam, affecting proper operation of equipment that uses steam. Suspended solids, which cause sludge or sediment in the boiler, must be removed because they affect the heat transfer capabilities of the pressure vessel.
Sludge buildup leads to problems ranging from poor fuel-to-steam efficiency to pressure vessel damage. Water column blow-down: Water columns on steam boilers should be blown down once each shift or at a minimum once a day. This action keeps the column and piping connections clean and free of sediment or sludge. The gauge glass connected to the water column are the only means of visually verifying boiler water level. The low-water cutoff should be checked once a week by shutting off the feed water pump and letting the water evaporate under normal steam conditions at low fire.
The gauge glass should he observed and marked at the exact point at which the low water cutoff shuts down the boiler. The test verifies operation of the low-water cutoff under operating conditions.
The low-water cutoff also should the removed and cleaned every six months. Water treatment: Proper water treatment prolongs boiler life and ensures safe and reliable operation. Treatment programs are designed around the quality and quantity of raw water makeup and system design. A qualified water management consultant should direct them. Flue gas temperature: Flue gas temperature is a good indicator of boiler efficiency changes.
The temperature should be recorded regularly and compared to those of a clean boiler under the same operating conditions. Accurately determining the affect on efficiency requires that the firing rate and operating pressure be the same. A rise in flue gas temperature usually indicates dirt on the fireside of the boiler or scale on the waterside.
The cost of fireside cleaning should be compared to those of lower operating efficiencies to determine the minimum temperature rise at which the fireside should be cleaned. Other factors also affect flue gas temperature.
For example, a rise in stack temperature may indicate a baffle or seal in one of the boiler's passes has failed. Waterside and fireside surfaces: Waterside and fireside surfaces should be inspected and cleaned annually. A visual inspection provides an early warning that the vessel needs repair or water treatment or that combustion needs adjustment.
Inspecting and cleaning water-column connections should receive special attention. Soot in the breeching is a fire hazard and can cause severe combustion-related problems. Safety valves: Safety valves are the most important safety devices on the boiler. They are the last line of defense for protecting the pressure vessel from overpressure.
Once a year, the operating pressure should be tested by bringing the relief valve to its setting. Valves should pop and reseat according to the valve stamping. Refractory: Refractory protects steel not in direct contact with the water from overheating.
It also helps maintain proper burner flame patterns and performance. If the boiler remains on all the time, refractory should be inspected twice a year. If the boiler cycles more frequently or is turned on and off daily, refractory should be inspected more often. Heating and cooling refractory a lot shortens its life considerably. It cracks and eventually fails. Hot spots on the steel that the refractory protects indicate refractory or gasket failure.
If a hot spot is found, the cause should be determined and repaired immediately to prevent the steel from failing. Strict manual check-up and vigilance must be maintained. Until normal working conditions are reached, indirect water level indicator may not be relied upon. However, they should not be neglected either.
Check if dampers are free to move and operating gear devices are in good order. After hours of service, the same exercise as mentioned above should be repeated. The records for boiler performance must show the time, boiler pressure, steam temperature at the inlet and outlet of superheater, rate of evaporation, rate of feed flow, feed water inlet and outlet temperatures, undue leakages from pump glands, draught readings at boiler economiser and air heater exit, air and gas temperature at entry and exit of air heater, gas temperature at entry and exit of economiser, water temperature at entry and exit of economiser, current reading of forced secondary and induced draught fans, speed of the fan if variable type, quantity of raw water used, bearing temperature of fans, rate of consumption of fuel, CO 2 and O2 readings, occurrence of water shortage in boiler, frequency of soot blowing, condition of feed water, chemical dozing, concentration of solids in water, frequency of blow down period, testing of alarms, and safety devices, leakages from valves and frequency of ash removal and name of persons responsible for boiler operation.
It is detectable by reduced CO2 level. Thus maintaining high CO 2 level at the chimney base cannot be overemphasized. Hence large boilers should not be operated at very low loads, in general.
Therefore for his personal comforts facilities must be provided in the boiler house. He should check the pressure in the gauge if it is within the operating limits. He should peruse the remarks column of the logbook if any abnormal condition had occurred in the last shift. In power stations and large industrial complex the load could be fairly constant for several hours and the fluctuations could be anticipated with regular frequency and approximate time of incidence.
In case of rolling mills, steel plants electric traction etc. Peak efficiency could be obtained in the range of 60 to 90 percent of rating. If the load is below 30 to 40 percent of rating 5 percent decrease in efficiency may be expected. In oil gas and pulverized coal firing, immediate control could be established within the range of operation of the supply source burner regulation.
In automatic stoker firing, certain degree of flexibility is provided to control within the limits the rate of combustion by additional supply of fuel and air.
When increased steam demand is expected, large bank of fire is built up and preparation could be made in advance for increase or decrease in load. Where load is likely to fluctuate the design of the boiler must be such that it is capable of adjusting itself certain sporadic changes in load.
However attempt to constantly follow erratic changes of load by boiler operators by constantly adjusting firing condition is not a good practice.
Besides the load fluctuations effecting the pressure in a boiler, certain other factors also cause variations in pressure which could be due to sudden changes in feed water temperature, soot blowing, changes in calorific value of fuel and intermittent feeding.
To avoid thermal stresses, variations in feed water temperature should be avoided and feed water admitted at an even rate. Feed check valve should not be fully open or fully closed when a boiler is generating steam and this is the function of automatic feed water regulator.
The rate of firing should be reduced or the burners extinguished as the case may be and maximum induced draught capacity employed to minimize steam leakage into boiler room. When the pressure has dropped to less than 50 psig so that there is not much danger of steam blowing in the boiler room, stop induced draught fan and try to locate the faults and then blow down water.
Information Bulletin: Recommended maintenance and inspection for low pressure steam boilers
Home Contacts About Us. Steam pressure-gauge 6. Check boiler water level in the sight glass and the steam pressure on the gauge to the steam boilers. Boiler Operation and Maintenance Introduction. Preliminary Operation Preparations.
This GL O MACS Steam Boilers training seminar will focus on the study of correct operation and regular routine maintenance to ensure that boiler plant remains at peak efficiency, keeping running costs to a minimum. The training seminar provides participants with the best practices and procedures of boilers operation and maintenance. The goal of this GL O MACS training seminar is to ensure participants gain a comprehensive understanding of commercial, industrial and utility boiler systems. Boiler inspections, maintenance, operating controls testing, and troubleshooting will all be discussed. Also, the protection and burner management system will be discussed.
Books On Boiler Operation Engineering Pdf
Chattopadhyay books on boilerAnswers. Basic Concepts of a Boiler Download,. Please click button to get boiler operation,. Boiler operation engineering pdf - Soup. Proper boiler venting is critical for operation of your boiler.
Eastwood Park Training, a dedicated training facility providing both on-site and residential commercial courses in South West England, is a Cochran Training Partner. In addition to facilitating BOAS courses Eastwood Park deliver courses for various appointed roles required to operate within safe systems of work for boiler, autoclave and other stored pressure systems. A drop of just 0. Ensure that those responsible for day-to-day boiler operation, or overall management, have been trained to be fully conversant with the risks, safe procedures and best practice in the boilerhouse. Ensure you comply with current legislation by training your personnel in the correct procedures to minimise emissions.
Boiler operation and maintenance is … Proper maintenance and operation of boilers systems is important with regard to eficiency and reliability.
Boiler Training Centre
In most commercial building heating applications, the heating source in the boiler is a natural gas fired burner. Oil fired burners and electric resistance heaters can be used as well. Steam is preferred over hot water in some applications, including absorption cooling, kitchens, laundries, sterilizers, and steam driven equipment. Boilers have several strengths that have made them a common feature of buildings.
Boiler Operation and Maintenance Introduction. Final Operation Controls. Preliminary Operation Preparations. Gas Boiler boiler pdf manual download. A steam boiler is a closed vessel, generally made of steel, in which water is heated by some source of heat produced by combustion of fuel and ultimately to generate steam.
Operation of the steam boiler should be conducted by a mechanical installation and electricity technician. Defective armatures or control elements must be.