File Name: skeletal muscle form and function .zip
- Skeletal muscle
- Skeletal muscle : form and function
- Skeletal muscle : form and function
- Skeletal muscle: A review of molecular structure and function, in health and disease
Skeletal muscle , also called voluntary muscle , in vertebrates , most common of the three types of muscle in the body. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones by tendons , and they produce all the movements of body parts in relation to each other.
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The muscle system is responsible for movement of the human body, posture, movement of substances inside the body andfor the generation of body heat. There are approximately known and named muscles and on top of that, muscle tissue is also found inside of the heart, digestive organs, and blood vessels. Skeletal muscle is a voluntary muscle, which means that we can actively control its function. Skeletal muscles often exist in pairs, whereby one muscle is the primary mover and the other acts as an antagonist.
For example when you bend your arm, your biceps contracts whilst your triceps is relaxed. When your arm returns to the extended position it is the triceps that contracts and the biceps relaxes.
Skeletal muscle is a fascinating tissue with a complex structure. It consists of elongated multinuclear cells called the myocytes or myofibers. The muscle cells can be anything from 1 mm to 30 cm in length.
The longest muscle cell in our bodies can be found in the sartorius muscle and is 30 cm nearly 12 inches! The individual muscle cells appear striated under the microscope see image below. This is due to the highly organsied structure of the muscle fibers where a ctin and myosin myofilaments are stacked and overlapped in regular repeating arrays to form sarcomeres. Actin and myosin filaments slide against each other and are responsible for the muscle contraction. To see how the muscle contracts and works, have a look at the video here.
The energy for muscle function comes from intracellular organelles called the mitochondria. Mitochondria are the powerhouses of every cell in our bodies and responsible for delivering energy that the cells need to function. Muscles are ennervated by motor neurons.
A motor neuron and the muscle fibers ennervated by it form a motor unit. Size of motor units varies in the body, depending on the function of the muscle. Fine movements eyes have fewer muscle fibers per neuron to allow for fine movement. Muscles that require a lot of strength have many muscle fibers per unit.
The body can control strength by deciding how many motor units it activates for a given function. There are two types of skeletal muscles in our bodies, which vary in function. Slow twitch muscle fibres are better for endurance activities and can work for a long time without getting tired. Fast twitch muscles are good for rapid movements as they contract quickly, but get tired fast, and consume lots of energy. Most of our muscles are made up of a mixture of both slow and fast twitch muscle fibres.
However, muscles involved in maintaining posture contain mainly slow twitch muscle fibres, and muscles responsible for eye movements are made up of fast twitch muscle fibres. From biology-forums.
Skeletal muscle : form and function
Functional Tissue Engineering pp Cite as. In vitro tissue engineering of skeletal muscle involves culturing myogenic cells in an environment that emulates the in vivo environment so that the cells proliferate, fuse, organize in three dimensions, and differentiate into functional skeletal muscle. The tissue engineer uses a multitude of in vitro environmental cues to direct the proliferation process. The end result will be a skeletal muscle construct that resembles skeletal muscle in both form and function. The construct will be organized like a skeletal muscle, with long multinucleated cells oriented parallel to its long axis, and the construct will be capable of generating useful directed force and power. Such constructs have been developed from avian, rodent, and human primary muscle cells as well as immortalized myogenic cells. Use of these early generation constructs for basic science research, as implantable therapeutic protein delivery devices, and as drug screening constructs are moving forward.
Skeletal muscle : form and function
This review provides a current perspective on the mechanism of vitamin D on skeletal muscle function with the emphasis on oxidative stress, muscle anabolic state and muscle energy metabolism. It focuses on several aspects related to cellular and molecular physiology such as VDR as the trigger point of vitamin D action, oxidative stress as a consequence of vitamin D deficiency. The interaction between vitamin D deficiency and mitochondrial function as well as skeletal muscle atrophy signalling pathways have been studied and clarified in the last years. To the best of our knowledge, we summarize key knowledge and knowledge gaps regarding the mechanism s of action of vitamin D in skeletal muscle. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with oxidative stress in skeletal muscle that influences the mitochondrial function and affects the development of skeletal muscle atrophy.
Mitochondria are fascinating organelles regulating many critical cellular processes for skeletal muscle physiology. These include the aging-related deterioration of muscle function, disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy, sepsis-induced muscle wasting, cachexia, obesity-induced insulin-resistance and pathology-specific muscle atrophy and dysfunction occurring in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis for instance, and much more. These include mitochondrial dynamics fusion and fission processes , morphology and processes involved in mitochondrial quality control mitophagy.
Supplementary Table 2. A list of myopathies with known genetic associations in muscle genes mentioned in the manuscript is presented. Inflammatory, idiopathic myopathies or myopathies resulting as a consequence of other diseases are not listed in the table.
Inflammation is a recognized contributor to muscle wasting. Research in injury and myopathy suggests that interactions between the skeletal muscle and immune cells confer a pro-inflammatory environment that in
Skeletal muscle: A review of molecular structure and function, in health and disease
The muscle system is responsible for movement of the human body, posture, movement of substances inside the body andfor the generation of body heat. There are approximately known and named muscles and on top of that, muscle tissue is also found inside of the heart, digestive organs, and blood vessels. Skeletal muscle is a voluntary muscle, which means that we can actively control its function. Skeletal muscles often exist in pairs, whereby one muscle is the primary mover and the other acts as an antagonist. For example when you bend your arm, your biceps contracts whilst your triceps is relaxed. When your arm returns to the extended position it is the triceps that contracts and the biceps relaxes.
Request PDF | On Jan 1, , Brian R. MacIntosh and others published Skeletal Muscle Form and Function | Find, read and cite all the.
NCBI Bookshelf. Heeransh D. Dave ; Micah Shook ; Matthew Varacallo.
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