evolution and the sudden infant death syndrome mckenna pdf

Evolution And The Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Mckenna Pdf

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James J.

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Evolution and the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

The system can't perform the operation now. Try again later. Citations per year. Duplicate citations. The following articles are merged in Scholar. Their combined citations are counted only for the first article. Merged citations.

Invs , Les morts inattendues des nourrissons de moins de 2 ans , Krous, J. Beckwith, R. Byard, T. Rognum, T. Bajanowski et al. Carpenter, L.

Sleeping behaviour

Healthy sleeping habits are essential to foster proper cognitive, behavioural, emotional and physical development in children. Accordingly, early detection and intervention is necessary to reduce or eliminate poor sleeping habits as soon as possible. Cultural innovations and child care practices and, importantly, the dynamic social values and ideologies that legitimize them, shift quite rapidly relative to evolutionary-based changes in fundamental infant biology. Certainly infants sleeping separated from their caregivers at night solitary room sleeping , infants sleeping on their stomachs prone to promote uninterrupted, early consolidation of adult-like sleep, and bottle-feeding with formula or cows milk rather than breast milk were all novel, culturally-sanctioned but scientifically-untested as safe or best infant care innovations. We describe here how the western dismantling of three fundamental evolved maternal nighttime infant caregiving practices, specifically, how to lay your baby down to sleep, how to feed your baby, and where to locate your baby for sleep, created the conditions that favored and fostered the emergence within western industrialized cultures of SIDS. We also discuss how the same underlying cultural beliefs that supported the idea that infants sleep best alone serve presently to permit the acceptance of an inappropriate set of assumptions related to explaining why some babies die unexpectedly while sleeping in their parents beds. While the general consensus is that there is no single, primary cause of SIDS, its expression depends on, as Kinney and Thach 13 describe it, the simultaneous presence of three factors: 1 some underlying infant vulnerability, likely congenital in origin; 2 some undefined, possibly species-specific characteristic unique to the human infant, especially relevant within a narrow developmental, critical period and, finally; 3 some kind of exogenous stressor.

Postnatal parent-infant physiological regulatory effects described in the previous paper Part I are viewed here as being biologically contiguous with events that occur prenatally, preparing and sensitizing the fetus to the average microenvironment into which the infant is expected, based on its evolutionary past, to be born. Following McKenna , evidence some of which is circumstantial is presented concerning fetal hearing and fetal amniotic liquid breathing as they are affected both by maternal cardiovascular blood flow sounds in the uterus and by fluctuating maternal blood sugar levels. Data on the respiratory and vocalizing behavior of normal and hearing-impaired persons are used to show that not all forms of human breathing are innate; some forms develop with experience. These data reveal how human infants learn, for example, to coordinate higher and lower brain respiratory nuclei in the context of learning initially to cry with intent and purpose and later to speak. Voluntary, cortex-based breathing emerges at the same time that infants are most likely to die from SIDS, between 2 and 4 months of age.


This paper extends the evolutionary and developmental research model for SIDS presented in previous articles (McKenna a, b). Dala from variety of.


Cardiac Ion Channel Gene Mutations in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

This paper extends the evolutionary and developmental research model for SIDS presented in previous articles McKenna a, b. Data from variety of fields were used to show why we should expect human infants to be physiologically responsive in a beneficial way to parental contact, one form of which is parent-infant co-sleeping. It was suggested that on-going sensory exchanges touch, movement, smell, temperature, etc. In this article we review recent epidemiological data and sleep research findings on SIDS to show how they relate to evolutionary and cross-cultural perspectives. Results of a preliminary study of the co-sleeping behavior of mother-infant pairs indicate that, with respect to sleep, arousal, and respiratory patterns, co-sleeping mother-infant pairs affect each other in potentially important ways.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Корейское искусство самозащиты, тхеквондо, оказалось в большей мере смертоносным, нежели оборонительным. Военной службе пришел конец. Отсидев некоторое время в тюрьме, Хейл занялся поисками места программиста в частных компаниях. Он не скрывал от нанимателей того, что случилось с ним во время службы в морской пехоте, и стремился завоевать их расположение, предлагая работать без оплаты в течение месяца, чтобы они узнали ему цену. В желающих принять его на работу не было недостатка, а увидав, что он может творить на компьютере, они уже не хотели его отпускать. Профессионализм Хейла достиг высокого уровня, и у него появились знакомые среди интернет-пользователей по всему миру. Он был представителем новой породы киберпсихов и общался с такими же ненормальными в других странах, посещая непристойные сайты и просиживая в европейских чатах.

Танкадо предлагает ключ, с помощью которого его можно расшифровать. - Понятно.  - Она застонала. Все четко, ясно и. Танкадо зашифровал Цифровую крепость, и только ему известен ключ, способный ее открыть. Но Сьюзан трудно было представить себе, что где-то - например, на клочке бумаги, лежащем в кармане Танкадо, - записан ключ из шестидесяти четырех знаков, который навсегда положит конец сбору разведывательной информации в Соединенных Штатах.

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