systems of the body and their functions pdf

Systems Of The Body And Their Functions Pdf

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The muscular system consists of various types of muscle that each play a crucial role in the function of the body. Muscles allow a person to move, speak, and chew. They control heartbeat, breathing, and digestion.

Internal body organs

The muscular system consists of various types of muscle that each play a crucial role in the function of the body. Muscles allow a person to move, speak, and chew. They control heartbeat, breathing, and digestion. Other seemingly unrelated functions, including temperature regulation and vision, also rely on the muscular system. The muscular system contains more than muscles that work together to enable the full functioning of the body.

Skeletal muscles are the only muscles that can be consciously controlled. They are attached to bones, and contracting the muscles causes movement of those bones. Any action that a person consciously undertakes involves the use of skeletal muscles.

Examples of such activities include running, chewing, and writing. Smooth muscle lines the inside of blood vessels and organs, such as the stomach, and is also known as visceral muscle. It is the weakest type of muscle but has an essential role in moving food along the digestive tract and maintaining blood circulation through the blood vessels. Located only in the heart, cardiac muscle pumps blood around the body.

Cardiac muscle stimulates its own contractions that form our heartbeat. Signals from the nervous system control the rate of contraction. This type of muscle is strong and acts involuntarily.

When muscles contract, they contribute to gross and fine movement. Most muscle movement of the body is under conscious control. However, some movements are reflexive, such as withdrawing a hand from a source of heat. Muscle tendons stretch over joints and contribute to joint stability. Muscle tendons in the knee joint and the shoulder joint are crucial in stabilization.

The core muscles are those in the abdomen, back, and pelvis, and they also stabilize the body and assist in tasks, such as lifting weights. Skeletal muscles help keep the body in the correct position when someone is sitting or standing. This is known as posture.

Good posture relies on strong, flexible muscles. Stiff, weak, or tight muscles contribute to poor posture and misalignment of the body. Long-term, bad posture leads to joint and muscle pain in the shoulders, back, neck, and elsewhere. The heart is a muscle that pumps blood throughout the body. The movement of the heart is outside of conscious control, and it contracts automatically when stimulated by electrical signals.

Smooth muscle in the arteries and veins plays a further role in the circulation of blood around the body.

These muscles maintain blood pressure and circulation in the event of blood loss or dehydration. They expand to increase blood flow during times of intense exercise when the body requires more oxygen.

The diaphragm is a dome-shaped muscle located below the lungs. When the diaphragm contracts, it pushes downward, causing the chest cavity to get bigger. The lungs then fill with air. When the diaphragm muscle relaxes, it pushes air out of the lungs. When someone wants to breath more deeply, it requires help from other muscles, including those in the abdomen, back, and neck.

Smooth muscles in the gastrointestinal or GI tract control digestion. The GI tract stretches from the mouth to the anus. Food moves through the digestive system with a wave-like motion called peristalsis. Muscles in the walls of the hollow organs contract and relax to cause this movement, which pushes food through the esophagus into the stomach. The upper muscle in the stomach relaxes to allow food to enter, while the lower muscles mix food particles with stomach acid and enzymes.

The digested food moves from the stomach to the intestines by peristalsis. From here, more muscles contract to pass the food out of the body as stool. Urinary problems, such as poor bladder control or retention of urine, are caused by damage to the nerves that carry signals to the muscles.

Smooth muscles in the uterus expand and contract during childbirth. These movements push the baby through the vagina. Six skeletal muscles around the eye control its movements. These muscles work quickly and precisely, and allow the eye to:. Muscles in the torso protect the internal organs at the front, sides, and back of the body.

The bones of the spine and the ribs provide further protection. Muscles also protect the bones and organs by absorbing shock and reducing friction in the joints. Maintaining normal body temperature is an important function of the muscular system. Almost 85 percent of the heat a person generates in their body comes from contracting muscles.

When body heat falls below optimal levels, the skeletal muscles increase their activity to make heat. Shivering is one example of this mechanism. Muscles in the blood vessels also contract to maintain body heat. Body temperature can be brought back within normal range through the relaxation of smooth muscle in the blood vessels.

This action increases blood flow and releases excess heat through the skin. Below is a 3-D model of the muscular system, which is fully interactive. Explore the model, using your mouse pad or touchscreen, to understand more about the muscular system.

Muscles play a part in all functions of the body, from heartbeat and breathing to running and jumping. When muscles become damaged, it can impact movement, speech, and much more. A person should see a doctor if they notice signs of muscular weakness or pain that they cannot explain. A doctor can decide the problem and come up with an appropriate treatment plan. A ministroke, also known as a transient ischemic attack TIA , involves a temporary loss of blood supply to the brain.

Learn more about TIAs here. Speech and other forms of communication are often challenging after a stroke. Here, find strategies that have helped others and tips for friends and…. There are many different types of hernia.

Find out here what they look like, what they feel like, and when a person should contact a doctor to get…. Gas during pregnancy can be painful. Here are six positions that can help ease gas, along with alternative methods of prevention and treatment.

The term 'adrenaline junkie' describes people who regularly partake in activities that cause an adrenaline rush, such as extreme sports. Learn more. What are the main functions of the muscular system? How the muscular system works Main functions Fun facts Takeaway The muscular system consists of various types of muscle that each play a crucial role in the function of the body.

How the muscular system works. Eleven main functions of the muscular system. Share on Pinterest The muscular system allows for movement within the body, for example, during digestion or urination. Five fun facts about the muscular system. What are human challenge studies? Mouse study looks at how sounds influence early brain development. Diabetes drug significantly cuts body weight in adults with obesity. Related Coverage.

What is a transient ischemic attack TIA? Medically reviewed by Heidi Moawad, MD. Life after stroke: Tips for recovering communication skills. Medically reviewed by Deborah Weatherspoon, Ph. What do different types of hernia look like? Medically reviewed by Alana Biggers, M. What is an adrenaline junkie?

12 body systems and functions pdf

Blood is a specialized body fluid. It has four main components: plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Blood has many different functions, including:. The blood that runs through the veins, arteries, and capillaries is known as whole blood, a mixture of about 55 percent plasma and 45 percent blood cells. About 7 to 8 percent of your total body weight is blood.

In a Human Body, a number of systems work together so that the body can function the way it does. Some of the organs and functions of the organ systems are identified in the figure. Grade 3 through grade 6 kids get an insight into the major organ systems like digestive, respiratory, circulatory, nervous, excretory, skeletal, reproductive system, the major organs involved in each, and the functions carried out by them as they walk through these printable human body systems worksheets and charts. Lymphatic System. Muscular system: Enables the body to move … There are some organs in our body which are part of more than one body system as they serve more than one function.

The 12 Animal Organ Systems

Johns Hopkins Health System hospitals, outpatient locations and home care services are serving patients during inclement weather, with some practices switching to telemedicine visits. Patients should contact their providers to confirm. If you have a MyChart account, please contact your provider through MyChart. Posted Feb. The liver is located in the upper right-hand portion of the abdominal cavity, beneath the diaphragm, and on top of the stomach, right kidney, and intestines.

The respiratory system is the network of organs and tissues that help you breathe. It includes your airways, lungs, and blood vessels. The muscles that power your lungs are also part of the respiratory system. These parts work together to move oxygen throughout the body and clean out waste gases like carbon dioxide. The respiratory system has many functions.

The heart pumps blood through a vast network of arteries and veins. Blood is a living fluid. It transports oxygen and other essential substances throughout the body, fights sickness, and performs other vital functions. Below are 8 important facts about blood.

What are the main functions of the muscular system?

Even the simplest animals are exceedingly complicated. Advanced vertebrates like birds and mammals are composed of so many deeply intermeshed, mutually dependent moving parts that it can be hard for a non-biologist to keep track.

Functions of the Blood: 8 Facts about Blood

Have you ever wondered how many muscles you have in your body? The answer to this question actually depends on the type of muscle. Other muscle tissue, such as smooth muscle, typically occurs on a cellular level, meaning that you can actually have billions of smooth muscle cells. The muscles of your body perform a variety of vital functions.

Younger primary students may have little knowledge about internal bodily organs. They tend to think the contents of the body are what they have seen being put into or coming out of it, such as food and blood. Their experiences with everyday cuts, scratches and bruises seem to reinforce a view that blood is below the surface of the skin, filling the spaces inside the body like a bag of blood. Older children are more likely to be able to list a large number of organs but may not fully understand the function or interconnected nature of these.

The brain is an amazing three-pound organ that controls all functions of the body, interprets information from the outside world, and embodies the essence of the mind and soul. Intelligence, creativity, emotion, and memory are a few of the many things governed by the brain. Protected within the skull, the brain is composed of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. The brain receives information through our five senses: sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing - often many at one time. It assembles the messages in a way that has meaning for us, and can store that information in our memory. The brain controls our thoughts, memory and speech, movement of the arms and legs, and the function of many organs within our body. The central nervous system CNS is composed of the brain and spinal cord.

List of systems of the human body

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