Green Chemistry And The Ten Commandments Of Sustainability Pdf
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- Green Chemistry: The Future Is in Your Hands
- Green Chemistry and the Ten Commandments of Sustainability, 3rd ed
- Book: Green Chemistry and the Ten Commandments of Sustainability (Manahan)
Green Chemistry: The Future Is in Your Hands
This chapter attempts to show how the practice of chemistry teaching and learning is enriched by the incorporation of green chemistry GC into lectures and labs. To support this viewpoint, evidence from a wide range of published papers serve as a cogent argument that GC attracts and engages both science and nonscience students, enhances chemistry content knowledge, and improves the image of the field, while preparing the world for a sustainable future.
Published pedagogy associated with green and sustainable chemistry is critically reviewed and discussed. If chemistry is the central science, then green chemistry GC is central to sustainability. A transformation to a sustainable world not only requires highly skilled chemists, but additional professionals from a broad range of interdisciplinary fields. Hence, versatile and qualified instructors must be available and equipped to teach GC and sustainability literacy to a wide audience of students from elementary through graduate school.
But how can teachers be recruited, effectively trained, and equipped with the right educational tools to match the need for green chemical education GCE? To answer this question, one first examines the status of science employment and education. But the United States is not graduating enough of its own citizens to fill jobs in chemistry and there is a dire need to train more scientists, including chemists.
According to the U. One standardized measure of US high school student science achievement is the Program for International Student Assessment or PISA [ 7 ], which measures achievement in reading literacy, mathematics, and science literacy for year-olds in about 65 countries across the globe. Overall, the PISA results in science literacy [ 8 ] show that the United States is in 23rd place, and its average score of is neither measurably different from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development average of , nor measurably different from 13 competing educational systems.
The science literacy conundrum facing the United States is why is high school interest and PISA student performance stagnant when there is such a need for highly skilled, highly paid, and innovative scientists?
For chemistry, one problem might be the negative images attributed to it due to environmental disasters like Love Canal [ 9 ]. More recently, the fact that many companies have adopted green practices such as reformulating products in response to green consumer demand, for economic benefits, and because of their commitment to social welfare and the environment, implies that chemistry and science college students would be better prepared for an industrial role if they received some GC training.
Therefore, GC may provide a way to not only improve the public image of chemistry, but to engage students, promote K science literacy, and attract them to the chemistry profession. Integrating GC into the K and college teaching requires that K educators and science education professionals at both the undergraduate and graduate levels be better versed in the subject.
These educators then must determine how GC can fit into the K classroom. Hence, it is worthwhile to investigate pedagogy associated with GC. In conventional terms, pedagogy [ 10 ] refers to the art and science of teaching, encompassing the best practices regarding both content and methods.
It involves what, when, how, and why something is taught. However, pedagogy is more than planning, setting learning outcomes and objectives, and other technical factors regarding the arrangement, and execution of classroom activities.
In a more modern or contemporary sense, it serves as a deployment model for classroom teaching in which teachers are viewed as facilitators of learning. Current research, taking into account the science of how people learn, has shown that classroom pedagogy should shift from an expository model of knowledge transmission to inquiry and constructivist instruction [ 11 ].
Inquiry pedagogy involves all of the decisions that teachers make, regarding content and methods, to promote science instruction to train students to use the scientific method, in the way it is practiced by scientists in research. Therefore, inquiry involves all of the science process and content skills associated with the scientific method. There are three problems that must be overcome to make science instruction effective. First, students must be attracted to the profession of science; second, they must be engaged in classrooms; and finally they must understand and learn science content.
Dee Fink [ 17 ] describes how to transform a traditional classroom into one that engages students, and increase student interaction and satisfaction through the human dimension of learning.
The field of GC is perhaps the best example in chemistry of how to make chemistry relevant to a wide audience, while improving its image. Moreover, in association with GC content, the parallel field of GC pedagogy, referring to both the teaching and learning strategies based on the principles of GC, that occurs in the classroom or laboratory is important as well.
But GC is an emerging field whose teaching methodologies have not been well documented because they have only evolved over the last 20 years. Because GC is expanding, and many potential instructors need training, successful examples of instructional strategies or pedagogy associated with GC are worth reviewing. Only a few reviews on green chemistry education GCE exist, and so there is a need to elaborate on them.
Levy et al. This review mainly addressed work at the undergraduate level through According to the authors, there are GC pedagogical strengths and weaknesses in GC instruction, as noted in Table 1 where special attention is paid to organic GC. Many excellent web-based materials, case studies, and journal articles provide valuable resources.
Not all published work meets green criteria, including some that are catalytic, single pot, solventless, or that use ionic liquids.
Published claims are not always supported by data regarding metrics, life cycle assessments, and energy consumption. In organic reactions, more examples of new protecting groups, catalyst recycling, atom economy in redox reactions, and the use of water as a reaction solvent are needed. Although the work of Andraos and Dicks is the most valuable GCE review to date, the field is expanding and evolving at such a fast pace that their work requires elaboration.
For example, no review has addressed GCE pedagogy at the high school level in methods, content, or outreach. Moreover, little work addresses the pedagogy of undergraduate GC courses in the liberal arts and general chemistry.
This review of GCE consists of two parts. Since Andraos and Dicks published a thorough review of organic GC, only innovative pedagogies for organic that may be transferred to other areas will be covered. The emerging subfields of GC nanochemistry and GC analytical will not be covered. This review begins by addressing high school GC, and then proceeds through general chemistry GC and organic pedagogy, and finally covers sustainable chemistry education in part 2.
Over the last 20 years there has been an explosive growth in GC courses and programs. Internationally, GC also surged academically, and by there were more than 33 GC programs offered by 16 countries and organizations. Very little has been published regarding GC in the secondary curriculum, and there is a need for novel activities, experiments, and case studies. One way to publicize GC in high school is through outreach.
GC outreach in the K system is becoming more common as described in a write-up on Beyond Benign [ 26 ], a foundation that advances GC in New England. GC outreach is also supported by the Green Chemistry Institute [ 28 ]. Most of the NSTA articles regarding GC center on stimulating student interest in chemistry while imparting a positive image of the field and its relevance to everyday life. Ken Roy also authored a number of articles touching on GC. Students formulate a green root beer using local products root beer extract and recycled materials plastic bottles.
Content knowledge addressed includes using acid—base chemistry and two brewing methods: a dry ice and b yeast. Unfortunately, the latter process produced up to 0. Although Mandler et al. Results indicated that students underwent positive changes in both attitudes toward chemistry and were better motivated to learn chemistry. Little has been written regarding how to incorporate GC into undergraduate general chemistry and therefore this section will review in depth GC pedagogy used in labs, lecture, a case study, and a demonstration.
Generally speaking, published work involves two kinds of pedagogy: a the chemistry content subfield pedagogy which is primary and b the GC content pedagogy which is ancillary, but which also carries the function of motivation.
Hence, GC crosses the cognitive mode and also enhances the affective side by increasing motivation. In short, GC primarily serves as a vehicle to teach chemistry subfield content, and secondarily GC content. Cacciatore and Sevian [ 37 ] published a green-centered experiment to teach stoichiometry to AP Advanced placement or general chemistry college students.
Besides teaching three GC principles related to atom economy, safer chemicals, and waste prevention, students used inquiry to discover stoichiometry concepts while learning why and how to write a laboratory report. Regarding pedagogy, this paper also provides a clear distinction between cookbook and inquiry labs. In a prelab exercise, students performed a stoichiometry calculation similar to the one they would perform in lab.
The prelab exercise addressed the principles of GC, student prior knowledge concerning stoichiometry, allowed students time to correct misconceptions, and provided a scaffold to support the actual lab work to follow.
The actual experiment involved determination of the composition of a mixture of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate by heating and weighing.
Students worked in groups of two, and each group was provided one of three different sample lab reports, each report having one of the following deficiencies: a no materials or procedure, b nonreproducible results, and c no discussion section. Students had to confirm or refute the data given in their sample reports by performing the experiment. Student groups were permitted to discuss the experiment with other groups but could not exchange lab reports.
While doing the lab, students practiced inquiry, critical thinking, the scientific method, constructed new knowledge, and avoided applying a memorized algorithmic approach to stoichiometry.
GC principles were applied in the following ways: a all waste was recycled and reused, b neither sodium carbonate nor sodium bicarbonate is hazardous, and c all of the reactants converted to products illustrating atom economy.
Students responded positively to the lab indicating the power of GC as a tool to stimulate learning in high school or college general chemistry.
Cacciatore et al. The experiment is also suitable for a high school advanced placement course. Although many solubility equilibrium experiments have been published for the general chemistry lab, this was the first to incorporate GC and periodicity. This experiment is also substantially greener than many previously reported solubility experiments because it does not employ hazardous heavy metals like barium, lead, and silver.
The GC attributes pertaining to this experiment include using salts that are inexpensive, of low toxicity, and that pose little risk to students or to the environment.
In addition, dilute solutions were used, so only a small amount of waste was produced; moreover, that waste was neutralized before disposal. The experimental procedure involved using a standardized HCl solution to titrate saturated solutions of the group II hydroxides to a phenolphthalein endpoint. From the collected data, students computed K sp values for each salt. Since each salt contained only three ions, the K sp computation did not lead to a cognitive overload.
Next, students deduced periodic trends in solubility results, and applied and extended their constructed knowledge to predict the relative solubility of similar compounds. Finally, students demonstrated why their experiment fit in with GC principles. The experimental design employed two different kinds of inquiry.
The rarely used open inquiry design was used for the experimental part of the experiment, but a guided inquiry format was used for the lab report. Instead of using a cookbook procedure, students both planned and performed the experiment. But for the lab report, students completed partly written reports designed to guide students to use their solubility results to find a periodic trend and predict the solubilities of group II hydroxide salts not experimentally investigated.
To prepare students for the experiment, in a prelab exercise, students explored GC, solubility, solubility calculations, and periodicity. Next, when students came to lab, instead of starting work alone, they were arranged into groups and given one of three partially written lab reports. Although each lab report contained experimental data, each one also contained a different error or problem: a improper calculations, b incomplete procedure, or c no materials being listed.
Besides correcting or filling in missing information, student groups had to confirm unverified experimental data through lab work. During the experiment, student groups were allowed to interact with other groups, but could not exchange or show their sample lab reports.
This setup promoted collaboration and discussion. The laboratory protocol utilized research, suggesting that science learning is promoted in environments that prompt students to construct their own knowledge through inquiry and discovery.
Green Chemistry and the Ten Commandments of Sustainability, 3rd ed
This chapter attempts to show how the practice of chemistry teaching and learning is enriched by the incorporation of green chemistry GC into lectures and labs. To support this viewpoint, evidence from a wide range of published papers serve as a cogent argument that GC attracts and engages both science and nonscience students, enhances chemistry content knowledge, and improves the image of the field, while preparing the world for a sustainable future. Published pedagogy associated with green and sustainable chemistry is critically reviewed and discussed. If chemistry is the central science, then green chemistry GC is central to sustainability. A transformation to a sustainable world not only requires highly skilled chemists, but additional professionals from a broad range of interdisciplinary fields. Hence, versatile and qualified instructors must be available and equipped to teach GC and sustainability literacy to a wide audience of students from elementary through graduate school. But how can teachers be recruited, effectively trained, and equipped with the right educational tools to match the need for green chemical education GCE?
This review focuses on sustainability challenges in oil and gas development, which established a literature-based framework for clean fuel predominantly with reference to MENA region, and identifies the trend for oil and natural gas usage and their effect on the technologies and its human development index. What are the missing gaps for fossil fuel in order to obtain clean fuels, and how can those gaps identify and resolve the environmental issue by using fossil fuel as an energy source? The findings indicate that fossil fuel will remain the major source of energy and transportation fuels, which can be effectively refined using catalytic refining processes along with the CO 2 capturing and storage techniques in order to reduce global warming. Sustainable development refers to basic information about the social, economic, and environment aspects of human activity. Among the main driving elements of sustainability are the progress made in technology and the utilization of energy resources. Worldwide, the use of renewable energy sources may increase but has moderate progress.
Green chemistry , also called sustainable chemistry , is an area of chemistry and chemical engineering focused on the design of products and processes that minimize or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. The overarching goals of green chemistry—namely, more resource-efficient and inherently safer design of molecules, materials, products, and processes—can be pursued in a wide range of contexts. Note 1: Modified from ref. Note 2: Green chemistry discusses the engineering concept of pollution prevention and zero waste both at laboratory and industrial scales. It encourages the use of economical and. Green chemistry emerged from a variety of existing ideas and research efforts such as atom economy and catalysis in the period leading up to the s, in the context of increasing attention to problems of chemical pollution and resource depletion.
Book: Green Chemistry and the Ten Commandments of Sustainability (Manahan)
One area that has been particularly active is in chemistry, with green chemistry the subject of large numbers of symposia, international meetings, books, and journal papers. In addition, green chemistry institutes and academic programs have been established in various countries. In addition to covering green chemistry, the course covers sustainable science and technology in general. It introduces and defines the five environmental spheres.
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