File Name: the shark and the sardines .zip
Marvin Alisky; The Shark and the Sardines. Hispanic American Historical Review 1 August ; 42 3 : —
The Shark and the Sardines
The sardine run of southern Africa occurs from May through July when billions of sardines — or more specifically the Southern African pilchard Sardinops sagax — spawn in the cool waters of the Agulhas Bank and move northward along the east coast of South Africa. Their sheer numbers create a feeding frenzy along the coastline. The run, containing millions of individual sardines, occurs when a current of cold water heads north from the Agulhas Bank up to Mozambique where it then leaves the coastline and goes further east into the Indian Ocean.
In terms of biomass , researchers estimate the sardine run could rival East Africa's great wildebeest migration. In , the sardines failed to 'run' for the third time in 23 years. While saw a good run, marked another non-run.
Sardines group together when they are threatened. This instinctual behaviour is a defence mechanism, as lone individuals are more likely to be eaten than large groups. The sardine run is still poorly understood from an ecological point of view. There have been various hypotheses, sometimes contradictory, that try to explain why and how the run occurs.
A recent interpretation of the causes  is that the sardine run is most likely a seasonal reproductive migration of a genetically distinct subpopulation of sardine that moves along the coast from the eastern Agulhas Bank to the coast of KwaZulu-Natal in most years if not in every year.
The migration is restricted to the inshore waters by the preference of sardine for cooler water and the strong and warm offshore Agulhas Current, which flows in the opposite direction to the migration, and is strongest just off the continental shelf. A band of cooler coastal water and the occurrence of Natal Pulses and break-away eddies make it possible for sardine shoals to overcome their habitat constraints. The importance of these enabling factors is greatest where the continental shelf is narrowest.
The presence of eggs off the KwaZulu-Natal coast suggests that sardine stay there for several months and their return migration during late winter to spring is nearly always unnoticeable because it probably occurs at depths where the water is cooler than at the surface.
In some years there does not appear to be a sardine run. It was hypothesized that factors beside temperature may influence the movement of sardine along the KwaZulu-Natal coastline, One of these factors may be predation pressure. The KwaZulu-Natal coast includes varied oceanographic regions, each influenced by distinct environmental forces.
Some oceanographic variables have been found useful for describing conditions influencing sardine presence. Other conditions associated with sardine presence are: . North-easterly and north-westerly winds and north to south currents have a cooling effect upon nearshore sea surface temperatures, but south-easterly winds and increasing air temperatures cause nearshore sea surface temperature warming.
Dolphins estimated as being up to 18, in number, mostly the common dolphin Delphinus capensis are largely responsible for rounding up the sardines into bait balls. These bait balls can be 10—20 metres in diameter and extend to a depth of 10 metres. The bait balls are short lived and seldom last longer than 10 minutes.
Once the sardines are rounded up, sharks primarily the bronze whaler , and birds like the Cape gannet , and Bryde's whales take advantage of the opportunity. Other whale species, regardless of whether they do or not join the run, may appear in the vicinity such as humpback , southern right , and minke whales. The Cape gannet is the predator species most closely associated with sardine presence along the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal coastline and is the most useful indicator of sardine run activity.
Sharks and large gamefish presence is also strongly associated with sardine presence during the run, but as they are not as easily observed from the surface they are not as useful a predictor of sardine presence. The presence of common dolphins inshore along the east coast during winter is significantly associated with sardine presence, and the common dolphin can be considered the third most useful species for predicting sardine presence.
The resident population of bottlenose dolphin does not appear to associate with the sardine run, whereas the migrant stock does. This may explain why the bottlenose dolphin is less likely to predict sardine presence.
The principal predators at this stage were common dolphins Delphinus capensis and Cape gannets Morus capensis. The recent interest in the sardine run has had significant impact on the local economy. International and domestic divers join local tour operators on sardine run diving expeditions. The run has become important to tourism and is considered to be one of the main attractions in KwaZulu-Natal during the winter holiday period.
Both local and international tourists are attracted to the spectacle and are provided with opportunities to participate in activities such as dive charters and boat based predator viewing tours.
Information is also provided on the internet. The Sardine Run Association www. The sardine run also supports a small-scale, seasonal beach seine fishery. The oldest known record of the run is a mention in the Natal Mercury newspaper of 4 August More recently, the run has been the subject of natural history documentaries e.
Pilot shoals were netted at Hibberdene on 20 June , while the main shoal was sighted near Port St. Small pockets of sardines were seen between Mfazazana and Margate. About 25 crates of sardines were hauled out from the first netting at Hibberdene.
The 58 crates were sold "within minutes". About common dolphins and numerous sharks were noted near Margate. Shark nets had been removed between Umgababa and Port Edward. Sardines were netted at Park Rynie on 21 June Some large nets of — baskets of sardines were taken.
The baskets sold at R each. A large gathering of sardine predators was seen off Port Grosvenor on the Wild Coast. It is suspected that this year's shoal is "massive", and will produce a "bumper run". Shark nets have been removed to the south of Durban. The first shoals were expected to reach Amanzimtoti on 23 June On 22 June , a "few" baskets were netted at Umgababa beach, and a "handful" of baskets were netted at Warner Beach in the afternoon.
Sardines were also netted at Isipingo , where 14 baskets were hauled out. The sardines therefore reached the Amanzimtoti area a day earlier than predicted. Rough seas with waves up to 4. Pockets of sardines were seen far out to sea off the Bluff. The rough water and far distance of the sardines from shore made it impossible for the fish to be netted.
No dolphin or bird activity was seen in the Durban area associated with the sardines. The main shoal was still suspected to be off the Eastern Cape coastline,  with a report of some sardines still seen near Port St Johns on 22 and 23 June Durban beaches were the scene of most netting activity on 27 June The price per basket was R in the morning, but later in the afternoon the price had dropped to R per basket. Cape gannets and other seabirds were seen "plunging from considerable heights" to catch the sardines, especially on the South Coast.
The "weeks old" dolphin was taken to a nearby paddling pool, but authorities later euthanased it due to the severity of the injuries. Swells dropped to 1—1. Sardines were netted at Amanzimtoti; on the main beach and at Chain Rocks.
Mr Stanchi managed to free himself from the shark, and was treated on the diving boat before being transported to Rocky Bay , where medics stabilised him. He was then airlifted to Nkosi Albert Luthuli Hospital , where he underwent surgery.
Dusky sharks generally live offshore, but come closer to the shore during the sardine run. The annual sardine run allowed more dusky sharks in the Aliwal Shoal MPA than usual, but there was no reason for them to show any more interest in divers than usual. Mr Stanchi had been wearing split fins with black and grey stripes, and this may have looked like a small shoal of fish to the shark.
The woman is believed to have been trying to get some of the sardines when she "stepped wrong" and fractured her leg. Paramedics stabilized her before transporting her to hospital. More Garrick were caught by fishermen at Karridene, but in general there was little other game fish activity.
There was reported to be a "massive shoal" of sardines off Coffee Bay in the Eastern Cape. On 15 July , baskets were netted at Pennington. It was difficult to predict the sardines' movements as they were staying offshore. On 20 July , baskets of sardines were netted at Pennington in the morning. There were many gannets off Ballito , and "quite a bit of fish" between Park Rynie and Mtwalume.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Sardine movement. Annual fish migration off the shores of South Africa. African Journal of Marine Science. Archived from the original on Fisheries Oceanography. Continental Shelf Research.
Southern Right whales sardine run Offshore Africa Port St. Upper Coast Fever: The sardines are finally here! Early arrivals netted on local beaches , June 24, The Mercury: Bumper sardine run could be just around the corner , June 22, Daily News: Sardines head for Amanzimtoti , June 22, Archived April 21, , at Archive.
Retrieved CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown link. Agent-based model in biology Bait ball Collective animal behavior Feeding frenzy Flock Flocking Herd Herd behavior Mixed-species foraging flock Mobbing behavior Pack Pack hunter Patterns of self-organization in ants Shoaling and schooling Sort sol Symmetry breaking of escaping ants Swarming behaviour Swarming honey bee Swarming motility.
Animal migration altitudinal tracking coded wire tag Bird migration flyways reverse migration Cell migration Fish migration diel vertical Lessepsian salmon run sardine run Homing natal philopatry Insect migration butterflies monarch Sea turtle migration.
The sardine run of southern Africa occurs from May through July when billions of sardines — or more specifically the Southern African pilchard Sardinops sagax — spawn in the cool waters of the Agulhas Bank and move northward along the east coast of South Africa. Their sheer numbers create a feeding frenzy along the coastline. The run, containing millions of individual sardines, occurs when a current of cold water heads north from the Agulhas Bank up to Mozambique where it then leaves the coastline and goes further east into the Indian Ocean. In terms of biomass , researchers estimate the sardine run could rival East Africa's great wildebeest migration. In , the sardines failed to 'run' for the third time in 23 years.
Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton , five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head , and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head. Modern sharks are classified within the clade Selachimorpha or Selachii and are the sister group to the rays. However, the term "shark" has also been used for extinct members of the subclass Elasmobranchii outside the Selachimorpha, such as Cladoselache and Xenacanthus , as well as other Chondrichthyes such as the holocephalid eugenedontidans. Under this broader definition, the earliest known sharks date back to more than million years ago. Since then, sharks have diversified into over species. They range in size from the small dwarf lanternshark Etmopterus perryi , a deep sea species of only 17 centimetres 6.
Feeding habits of the blue shark Prionace glauca off the coast of Brazil. Stomachs from blue sharks collected along the Brazilian coast were analyzed - from the northeastern region and from the southern region. A total of 51 prey taxa were identified. The most important prey items in the southern region were Mysticeti whales, teleosteans, the gempylid Ruvettus pretiosus and the nomeid Arioma bondi. Cephalopods were more diverse, with dominance of vertical migrants Histioteuthis spp.
Sardines "pilchards" are a nutrient-rich, small, oily fish widely consumed by humans and as forage fish by larger fish species, seabirds and marine mammals. Sardines are a source of omega-3 fatty acids. Sardines are often served in cans, but can also be eaten grilled, pickled, or smoked when fresh. Sardines are related to herrings , both in the family Clupeidae. The terms sardine and pilchard are not precise, and what is meant depends on the region.
Jump to navigation. Open this page as a printer friendly PDF. High in omega 3-fatty acids, Pacific sardines belong to a category of small, schooling fish known as forage fish because they are a critical source of food for many larger species. From whales, sea lions, and Chinook salmon, to brown pelicans, common murres, and least terns, Pacific sardines are an essential component in the diets of many ocean animals. These important forage fish have also been the target of commercial fishing dating back to the early s, contributing revenue to the coastal economy and supporting fishing families. Historically, sardine fishing with large purse-seine vessels peaked off California in the late s, and then declined rapidly in the s driven by oceanographic changes and excessive fishing pressure.
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