File Name: the classroom and the cell .zip
Stephen J. The American Biology Teacher 1 August ; 77 6 : — Learning about stem cells within the context of treating pet illness or injury is an additional way for teachers to discuss the integration of science, technology, and veterinary medicine.
- Effects of Classroom Cell Phone Use on Expected and Actual Learning.
- Effects of Classroom Cell Phone Use on Expected and Actual Learning.
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In an effort to model the benefits of using smart devices and web 2. For Listeners: if you are an auditory learner and would rather listen to my effective practice submission as you read it, or while you are eating your lunch, I have provided the following link.
There is no doubt about the changing nature of the university student population in this digital society. Any understanding of students should involve an understanding of their digital world. Any university policies regarding the use and regulation of cell phones in classrooms should reflect such an understanding. The main focus of this article is the student discourse about cell phone regulation stemming from data gathered from a student focus group at Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, Texas. Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide.
Effects of Classroom Cell Phone Use on Expected and Actual Learning.
Stephen J. The American Biology Teacher 1 August ; 77 6 : — Learning about stem cells within the context of treating pet illness or injury is an additional way for teachers to discuss the integration of science, technology, and veterinary medicine. We explain how practitioners in veterinary medicine harvest animal stem cells from adipose fat tissue in treating pet illness or injury. Further, we narrate how the veterinarian's approach to pet stem cell therapy demonstrates an important step in technological progress in science, one that may lead to medical advances for humans.
Pets influence us on a daily basis by offering companionship, happiness, assistance, and even rehabilitation. In fact, the U. Nearly one-quarter of this amount is spent on pet health Henderson, In response to the high premium placed on the well-being of pets, an increasing number of veterinary professionals have begun to offer advanced methods of treatment for debilitating illnesses that, in the recent past, left pet owners with fewer options for ailing or injured pets Farenga et al.
Alongside traditional treatments, veterinary medicine has advanced to the point where specialists are treating an increasing number of pets with stem cell therapy to improve numerous maladies in various animals, such as dogs, cats, horses, and birds Black et al. The purpose of this article is to explain the harvesting of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells AD-MSCs from the standpoint of veterinary medicine.
In doing so, we provide science teachers with an alternative approach to teaching the subject of stem cells. Further, we demonstrate how the veterinarian's practice in stem cell therapy using adipose fat tissue has contributed to a large and important step in technological advancement for biology and for science in general. In examining this topic, however, it will be necessary to define several important terms. Doing so will help readers navigate through the discussion of stem cell therapy, while, at the same time, considering the importance of this topic from medical and technological perspectives.
Stem cells comprise a class of cells that divide for indefinite periods in culture and develop into specialized cells. There are two types of stem cells that are familiar to most people: embryonic stem cells ESCs and adult stem cells ASCs. It may help to visualize a timeline when thinking about ESCs and the terminology used to describe the biological processes associated with development Figure 1. The ability for ESCs to differentiate into different cell types as the organism develops decreases over time.
This gives them the potential to transform from totipotency to pluripotency to multipotency Figure 1. At present, we have not learned how to harvest embryonic stem cells without endangering the embryo. This endangerment is an important explanation for the controversy of harvesting embryonic stem cells and conducting embryonic stem cell research.
That said, biologists and other research scientists have made advances in harvesting multipotent stem cells from adult tissue Vieira et al. Given that ASCs are limited to the cell type for the specific tissue or organ where they are located, the field of regenerative medicine associated with these stem cells remains an actively researched area in biology Cohen, ; Marx et al. ASCs share some limited commonality with ESCs in that they have the capacity of both self-renewal and differentiation.
ASCs may remain inactive until the appropriate conditions occur. For example, ASCs can be activated after an injury and migrate to the surrounding tissue. However, the role of regeneration varies with the type of tissue that has been injured, the severity of the injury, and the specific type of ASCs that are activated.
In addition, research suggests that, in most instances, the quantity of ASCs is small, is difficult to harvest, and declines with age Weissman, Current scientific evidence suggests five broad areas in which ASC therapy can promote healing. First, ASCs provide an anti-inflammatory effect by modulating immune function.
Second, ASCs migrate to damaged tissues through a biochemical signaling process and recruit other cells that secrete cytokines and other proteins.
Third, ASCs support tissue remodeling over scar formation by the release of progenitor cells, which aid the regenerative process by producing a variety of growth factors that quicken recovery.
However, unlike ASCs, they are incapable of renewal and are restricted in terms of the type of cells they can become. The role of progenitor cells is exemplified by endothelial progenitor cells that 1 are undifferentiated; 2 are located in the adult bone marrow or circulate in the blood; and 3 have the potential to promote revascularization, which is necessary for tissue growth Hill et al.
Fourth, ASCs inhibit apoptosis — namely, ASCs appear to turn off the process of cell death in which a programmed sequence of events leads to the elimination of cells around the injury site Glennie et al.
And last, depending on their origin, ASCs can differentiate into a variety of tissue types. In canines and equines, clinical practice has demonstrated vast improvements in mobility due to the regeneration of bone, cartilage, tendon, and ligament tissue Black et al. So, the challenge for researchers is fourfold: 1 to increase the number of ASCs grown in laboratories; 2 to manipulate the ASCs to produce specific cell types; 3 to determine the best use of ASCs in treating injury or disease; and 4 to address ethical concerns effectively.
One possible solution to the challenge of stem cell research may come from what many would consider an unlikely source: adult mesenchymal stem cells MSCs. MSCs can be isolated for therapeutic use by obtaining them from bone marrow, adipose tissue, lung tissue, the placenta, the umbilical cord, blood, and dental pulp. Further, a growing number of veterinarians are currently engaging in stem cell therapy in their clinical practice Marx et al.
Capabilities of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Diagram used with permission of Animal General Inc. AD-MSCs can be produced in great quantity in clinical situations, have the ability to become different cell types, and are used to treat a variety of conditions Marx et al. AD-MSCs are part of the tissue stroma, are self-renewable, and can differentiate into cells with the specific function required to alleviate certain debilitating conditions Le Blanc, Research in veterinary medicine has shown that stem cells can be harvested more easily from adipose tissue than from other stem cell sources in the body di Summa et al.
Adipose tissue contains a plentiful supply of MSCs. In addition, veterinarians have reported in clinical trials that obtaining AD-MSCs from subcutaneous or abdominal adipose tissue tends to be far less painful for an animal receiving medical treatment, compared with a number of standard procedures see the case study below. Even though AD-MSCs have a mesodermal origin, a number of studies demonstrate beneficial outcomes on body structures that emanate from ectodermal and endodermal lineages di Summa et al.
Veterinarians have treated animals with stem cell therapy mainly in preclinical trials. Some trials have suggested benefits that are dependent on four conditions: 1 the animal being treated; 2 diagnosed illness; 3 method of treatment; and 4 appropriate follow-up and rehabilitation.
In fact, a number of studies have reported positive effects of AD-MSC therapy in the treatment of debilitating conditions. These conditions include, but are not limited to, the following: the regeneration and repair of tissues and cells associated with cardiac-related illness such as postischemia Wu et al. In other words, the AD-MSCs used in treatment will not trigger a response from the organism's immune system and, therefore, will likely have both innate and adaptive immunity.
Remarkably, as shown in Table 1 , this has been demonstrated in procedures that involve autografts, allografts, and xenografts Wu et al. Further, the mesenchymal stem cell suspension appears to bring about ameliorative actions that may reduce nonspecific immune responses, such as acute and chronic inflammation Le Blanc, ; Nasef et al.
For our purposes, this procedure outlines the use of AD-MSCs for improving conditions of mobility affected by chronic inflammation, osteoarthritis, tendon injury, or lameness in dogs, horses, and cats. To begin with, surgeons must use aseptic techniques at all times. The first task of the veterinarian surgeon is to obtain adipose tissue from the animal requiring treatment Figure 3. The surgeon then places the adipose tissue in a sterile container and cuts the tissue into smaller pieces to increase the tissue's surface area.
The cut-up tissue is then placed in a test tube along with antibiotic wash Figure 4. Next, digestive serums are injected into the adipose tissue. The technician then mixes the tissue and places the tissue-filled test tube in a water bath for the purpose of incubation. It is then placed in a centrifuge to remove supernatant fluid. The cell pellet, which contains potential mesenchymal stem cells, can be found at the bottom of the test tube container.
The solution containing the cell pellet must be filtered and placed back in the test tube container Figure 5. The process of centrifuging and filtering is repeated twice. Finally, the cell pellet is now ready to be used for treatment. Adipose tissue obtained from a dog requiring treatment. Photograph used with permission of Animal General Inc. Adipose tissue placed in container with antibiotic wash and digestive fluids. Top layer Yellow unsaturated fatty layer.
Middle layer White fibrin and undigested fatty layer. The two most common are the following: The first is to inject the stem cells and solution directly into the affected tissue or joint. The second is to deliver the stem cells in solution through an intravenous drip. Research has also demonstrated benefits by injecting stem cells directly into muscles or infected organs Jung et al.
In some cases, direct injection and the intravenous drip are both used in treatment. Complex feedback loops exist, which control how stem cells self-renew, differentiate, commit cell death, and emigrate. The function of the stem cell is controlled by a combination of external and internal mechanisms. Internal cellular regulation is directed by signaler proteins produced by their own cellular machinery. In general, three external mechanisms regulate a cell's developmental choices: chemicals secreted by other cells, physical contact among surrounding cells, and molecules found in the microenvironment.
Regenerative medicine models show that mesenchymal stem cells respond to chemicals secreted by other cells at the site of the damaged tissue Cohen, ; Marx et al. The injury site attracts the mesenchymal stem cells and other proteins, which, in turn, establish chemical pathways to the injury as a means of starting the process of repair. When the mesenchymal stem cells get to the injury site, they have the potential to repair damaged tissue by proliferation and matrix production.
At least one of the factors in cell growth and adhesion appears to be regulated by the pressure found around the surrounding cells. An on-and-off mechanism that controls the molecular interactions seems to be regulated by the pressure applied at the intercellular sites.
This helps explain the formation of the extracellular matrix, where the cells adhere to the repair site, produce new cells, and form and connect to new tissue. The extracellular matrix supplies the architecture and strength to the surrounding cells. At the time of tissue repair, combinations of protein fibers and nonfibrous substances serve a connective function between groups of cells in the stroma.
At the repair site, chemokines allow for cellular communication between and among groups of cells. However, the signaling processes of intercellular and intracellular communication are not fully understood.
Research scientists are still looking for the exact mechanisms to control the regenerative process in order to develop more effective treatments. The therapeutic use of AD-MSCs in veterinary medicine has the potential not only to improve the lives of our pets, but also to supply clinical trials as evidence and as a basis for beginning human trials and treating human illness.
Although the reports from some studies suggest positive results, more data are needed to answer specific questions regarding AD-MSC treatment. The field of regenerative medicine is probably one of the most pioneering areas that demonstrate the need for teaching and learning of scientific and mathematical inquiry skills.
Prior to discussion, students will need a foundational understanding of the differences between the use of adult stem cells and of embryonic stem cells. Further, students will be faced with making decisions that are generated by the impact from the advances of science and technology on the field of medicine.
The following case study involving Sadie exemplifies the cutting-edge research in stem cell therapies as it applies to veterinary medicine.
Effects of Classroom Cell Phone Use on Expected and Actual Learning.
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mideastjustice.org: The Classroom and the Cell: Conversations on Black Life in America (): Abu-Jamal, Mumia, Hill, Marc Lamont: Books.
Как старшему криптографу ей полагался терминал с самым лучшим обзором. Он был установлен на задней стороне компьютерного кольца и обращен в сторону шифровалки. Со своего места Сьюзан могла видеть всю комнату, а также сквозь стекло одностороннего обзора ТРАНСТЕКСТ, возвышавшийся в самом центре шифровалки. Сьюзан посмотрела на часы. Она ждет уже целый час.
Хейл сразу же растерялся, не зная, как истолковать примирительный тон коммандера, и немного ослабил хватку на горле Сьюзан. - Н-ну, - заикаясь начал он, и голос его внезапно задрожал. - Первым делом вы отдаете мне пистолет. И оба идете со. - В качестве заложников? - холодно усмехнулся Стратмор. - Грег, тебе придется придумать что-нибудь получше. Между шифровалкой и стоянкой для машин не менее дюжины вооруженных охранников.
Он поднял глаза на видеомониторы, и у него закружилась голова. Одна и та же картинка смотрела на него со всех двенадцати мониторов наподобие какого-то извращенного балета. Вцепившись руками в спинку стула, Бринкерхофф в ужасе смотрел на экраны. - Чед? - услышал он голос у себя за спиной. Обернувшись, Бринкерхофф начал всматриваться в темноту. Мидж как ни чем не бывало стояла в приемной возле двойной двери директорского кабинета и протягивала к нему руку ладонью вверх.