understanding of male psychology and attraction pdf

Understanding Of Male Psychology And Attraction Pdf

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If only we knew, before choosing a location to meet, picking out an outfit, and pumping ourselves up for the occasion, whether it would all be worth it.

When Love Meets Money: Priming the Possession of Money Influences Mating Strategies

Money is an important factor that influences the development of romantic relationships. The current paper examines how the feeling of having relatively more or less money influences human mating strategies in long-term and short-term mating contexts under the framework of evolutionary psychology.

We recruited mainland Chinese college students involved in steady, heterosexual romantic relationships to participate in two experiments. In each study, we experimentally triggered participants' feelings of having relatively more or less money and then examined their thoughts and behaviors related to mating.

Results of Study 1 showed that men who were primed to feel that they had relatively more money were less satisfied with their partners' physical attractiveness than those primed to feel that they had less money, suggesting that the subjective feeling of having more or less money may affect men's preferences regarding the physical appearance of a mate in a long-term relationship.

Interestingly, this difference was not significant for women. This finding suggests that people who feel they have relatively more money may have more interest in an attractive alternative than those who feel they have relatively less money.

The differences in mating strategies between and within the genders brought about by money support the evolutionary hypothesis that individuals adopt conditional mating strategies in response to environmental conditions. Additionally, the results of experimental studies provide evidence for the causal effects of money on mating strategies.

These findings have both conceptual and practical implications for the psychology of evolution and romantic relationships. Money is often involved in love stories.

There are complex outcomes derived from the meeting of money and romantic love, and it is often difficult to conclude that money is either a promoter or an inhibitor of love. Some scholars have made efforts to explore the relation between money and romantic relationships, with a particular focus on the effects of women's income on the stability of long-term relationships e. However, the mixed findings from these studies e.

Some researchers have examined the influences of money on human relationships in laboratory experiments e. The experimental methods help to control for the influence of certain factors and allow researchers to make causal conclusions about the effects of money. Researchers have found that money tends to separate people from others and weaken social bonds due to the self-sufficient mental state it creates Vohs et al.

However, little is known about whether money can generate the social distancing effect in the mating context. One way to find the answer is to look back to our ancestral past and explore the roles of resources in our ancestors' mating process. On the basis of previous research findings and techniques, the current studies aimed to explore the effects of money on romantic relationships under the framework of evolutionary psychology.

Specifically, we conducted two experiments and examined individuals' mating preferences and selectivity in response to the amount of money they possess in the long-term and extra-pair mating contexts. Attitudes toward a long-term partner and an attractive alternative can well predict the stability and development of relationships Rusbult, Therefore, the current paper could provide new evidence on the influence of money on romantic relationships.

Additionally, findings from the two studies will help us better understand the processes of human mating and enrich the literature on evolutionary psychology. Next, we review the related literature and elaborate on how we built our research on prior work. Human mating strategies are solutions to the adaptive problems that our ancestors confronted to achieve reproductive success over our long history.

According to Trivers' theory of parental investment, women devote much more effort and time to offspring than men due to internal gestation, lactation, and extended parental care.

Sex differences in terms of minimum parental investment might lead to sex differences in the adaptive problems and optimal strategies used for reproductive success. Specifically, men's reproductive success is constrained by the number of fertile women, whereas women's reproductive success is constrained by their access to the continuous resources from one or more mates to rear children and the quality of a mate's genes.

Thus, two significant differences in mating strategies have evolved between men and women. First, men and women differ in the relative importance they place on a mate's physical appearance and resources. Whereas both men and women prefer an attractive mate, men are more likely to value a mate's physical attractiveness, which signals a woman's fertility and reproductive value, than women.

On the other hand, women are more likely to attach importance to a mate's resources than men e. Second, men have evolved a stronger interest in short-term mating and desire more mates than women e. Massive within-sex differences in mating strategies exist together with these sex differences.

For example, physically attractive men are more likely to engage in short-term mating than unattractive men Lukaszewski et al. This flexibility of human mating is well explained by the theory of strategic pluralism Gangestad and Simpson, Put simply, both men and women adopt conditional mating strategies depending on specific environmental factors or personal characteristics and aim to maximize or optimize their reproductive opportunities. Next, we focus on material resources or money and discuss how they influence human mating strategies.

The resources acquisition characteristic reflects a man's mate value Waynforth and Dunbar, ; Li et al. Evolutionary psychologists believe that individuals with high mate value are more likely to choose a sex-typical preferred strategy to achieve reproductive success than those with low mate value Buss and Schmitt, Therefore, men with more money can make higher demands with regard to women's physical attractiveness and engage more in short-term mating than men with less money.

Results of empirical studies have supported this proposition. For example, Waynforth and Dunbar used personal advertisement data and found that men offering resources had higher mate standards than those who did not. Yong and Li found that men had higher requirements for a potential mate when primed with large resources. Furthermore, some researchers suggest that showing immediate resources is an effective way to obtain short-term mating opportunities Cloyd, ; Hill et al.

According to Chang et al. Following this reasoning, possession of money could also be viewed as a cultural extension of weapon-like male attributes which help them win in intrasexual completion. Previous studies have showed that individual differences in weapon-like characteristics e.

Thus, cues to resources in the environment may lead men to choose the adaptive strategies to deal with intrasexual competition and maximize their reproductive success.

On one hand, when men do not have enough resources such as money to win in intrasexual competition, it would be more beneficial for them to remain stable in the current relationship.

Thus, men with less money may set lower standards for the current partner and tend to be more satisfied with her than men with more money. On the other hand, men with more money may become more confident and dominant in intrasexual competition, and are more likely to maximize their reproductive success by seeking more mates.

Generally, physical attractiveness reflects a woman's mate value more than material resources do Koyama et al. Historically, material resources or money are directly related to women's primary adaptive problem, so the amount of money that women possess might affect their reproductive benefit-cost analysis.

According to strategic pluralism theory Gangestad and Simpson, , women make a trade-off between a mate's parental investment and genetic benefits contingent on environmental conditions. When women possess sufficient resources to rear children independently, they may have less need for men's resources and benefit more from choosing a partner with good heritable qualities.

Some studies have provided evidence that women's access to resources is indeed associated with an increased mate preference for physical attractiveness e. However, in the experiment conducted by Yong and Li , women did not increase their mate standards for physical attractiveness when primed with a larger sum of money.

We believe that differences in factors such as research methodology, selection of variable indicators, and sample characteristics among these studies might contribute to the mixed findings.

For example, in some previous studies, participants who were not required to be involved in a romantic relationship were instructed to give preference ratings on a potential or imagined partner e. If women are already committed to a long-term relationship, they might not get more reproductive output by making higher demands regarding the unchangeable physical characteristics of a current partner. In this regard, an increased mating standard for physical attractiveness may impair the stability of the current relationship.

Losing a long-term relationship has a larger reproductive cost for women than for men. Therefore, historically, relationship status of women could influence their mating strategies. Even if committed women possess sufficient resources, they might not increase their demands with regard to a long-term mate's physical appearance. On the other hand, researchers have highlighted the possibility that women seek good genes through extra-pair mating Pillsworth and Haselton, They believe that sometimes it would be adaptive for some women to secure sufficient resources from a long-term partner and obtain heritable benefits from extra-pair mates.

Similarly, it is reasonable to believe that women are more likely to engage in extra-pair mating when they have their own access to money and depend less on men's resources. However, previous studies indicated that women are more likely to protect the relationships than men e. Thus, we expect that the amount of money on possesses would cause a smaller variance in women's extra-pair mating than in men's.

As mentioned earlier, women have less need for men's resources when they possess their own resources to take care of children.

Even so, they may not reduce their mating standard for resources. Theoretically, they can maintain the mating standard that matches with their physical attractiveness Pawlowski and Dunbar, or increase it due to the positive assortative mating effect Kalmijn, The structural powerlessness hypothesis Buss and Barnes, provides another possibility.

According to this hypothesis, women are excluded from power and so they get resources by seeking for a mate with power and status. Consequently, when men and women are endowed with equal power and resources, women would reduce their demands for a mate's resources and the differences between the sexes in terms of mate preferences would decrease. Previous studies show that attitudes related to sexual equality are indeed associated with a decrease in women's preferences regarding a mate's financial status Eagly and Wood, ; Moore et al.

However, access to or possession of resources may not be associated with women's decreased demand for a mate's resources Buss, ; Gil-Burmann et al.

Empirical evidence reveals that power-related sexual equality and money may exert different influences on human mating strategies. The structural powerlessness hypothesis does not seem to be suitable to explain money's effect on women's preference for a mate with resources. Instead, these research findings supported the evolutionary proposition that women value men's resources regardless of their own possession of wealth.

Taken together, the findings show that money is an important factor leading to differences in mating strategies within each sex. Specifically, both men and women who have more money are more likely to attach more importance to a mate's physical attractiveness and to engage in short-term mating than those who have less money. However, for committed women, money may lead to less variation in their mating strategies. These propositions are based on evolutionary theory and research, but most of the related studies used a correlational design.

Therefore, empirical evidence generated from experimental research is needed to establish the causal effects of money on mating strategies. The purpose of the current research is to examine the causal effects of the feeling of having relatively more or less money on human mating strategies.

We are particularly interested in sex differences and within-sex variations in this effect. Specifically, we arranged long-term and extra-pair mating contexts in two experiments, respectively. In Study 1, we examined individuals' satisfaction with their current partners so that we could determine the difference in preferences for a long-term mate between individuals primed to feel that they had relatively more money and individuals primed to feel that they had relatively less money.

In Study 2, we assessed individuals' behavioral response to an attractive potential extra-pair mate based on money priming. It should be noted that the participants were college students who were involved in an exclusive dating relationship and expected the relationship to last for more than 10 years.

It is reasonable to believe that these dating couples had a long-term relationship plan and had selected each other as a long-term mate. Therefore, we considered the participants to be in a long-term mating context, and their encounter with an attractive alternative could be interpreted as short-term, opportunistic mating.

Additionally, instead of using income as an indicator of money possession, we experimentally manipulated individuals' subjective feeling of having relatively more or less money. We believed that a subjective feeling regarding wealth could be a more direct influence on romantic relationships than the actual amount of money because psychological evaluations of monetary income could be different for different people.

Study 1 examined whether and how the feeling of having relatively more or less money would influence individuals' satisfaction with their current partners in a long-term relationship. Satisfaction with a romantic partner was measured with regard to physical attractiveness and resources.

When Love Meets Money: Priming the Possession of Money Influences Mating Strategies

Interpersonal attraction refers to positive feelings about another person. It can take many forms, including liking, love, friendship, lust, and admiration. Many factors influence whom people are attracted to. They include physical attractiveness, proximity, similarity, and reciprocity:. Researchers have proposed that romantic love includes two kinds of love: passionate love and compassionate love.

Social Psychology

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Recent academic research has enjoyed enormous press coverage and creeps up on every other internet news site. Amid much fanfare, the research proves that couples who make eye contact for 4 consecutive minutes trigger an emotional chain reaction that leads to inamourment. For all its merits, the experiment, in my view, puts the carriage before the horse. This is fairly advanced stuff. For what I know, men have an innate talent to sabotage themselves when it comes to, well, the

Money is an important factor that influences the development of romantic relationships. The current paper examines how the feeling of having relatively more or less money influences human mating strategies in long-term and short-term mating contexts under the framework of evolutionary psychology.

The Palgrave Handbook of Male Psychology and Mental Health

Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction or a combination of these to persons of the opposite sex or gender , the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender. These attractions are generally subsumed under heterosexuality , homosexuality , and bisexuality , [1] [2] [3] while asexuality the lack of sexual attraction to others is sometimes identified as the fourth category. These categories are aspects of the more nuanced nature of sexual identity and terminology. Androphilia describes sexual attraction to masculinity ; gynephilia describes the sexual attraction to femininity. Scientists do not know the exact cause of sexual orientation, but they theorize that it is caused by a complex interplay of genetic , hormonal , and environmental influences. Sexual orientation is studied primarily within biology , neuroscience , and psychology including sexology , but it is also a subject area in sociology , history including social constructionist perspectives , and law.

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4 Comments

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