Natural Antioxidants In Human Health And Disease Pdf
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- Free radicals, oxidative stress, and antioxidants in human health and disease
- Everything You Should Know About Oxidative Stress
Free radicals and oxidants play a dual role as both toxic and beneficial compounds, since they can be either harmful or helpful to the body. They are produced either from normal cell metabolisms in situ or from external sources pollution, cigarette smoke, radiation, medication. When an overload of free radicals cannot gradually be destroyed, their accumulation in the body generates a phenomenon called oxidative stress. This process plays a major part in the development of chronic and degenerative illness such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, aging, cataract, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.
Free radicals, oxidative stress, and antioxidants in human health and disease
Often used as a marketing buzzword, learn about the role of antioxidants beyond the hype, and some of the research on health and disease prevention. Jump to: — What are antioxidants? Another constant threat comes from chemicals called free radicals. In very high levels, they are capable of damaging cells and genetic material. The body generates free radicals as the inevitable byproducts of turning food into energy. Free radicals are also formed after exercising or exposure to cigarette smoke, air pollution, and sunlight. Free radicals come in many shapes, sizes, and chemical configurations.
Oxidative stress is an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants in your body. Free radicals are oxygen-containing molecules with an uneven number of electrons. The uneven number allows them to easily react with other molecules. Free radicals can cause large chain chemical reactions in your body because they react so easily with other molecules. These reactions are called oxidation.
The overproduction of reactive oxygen species ROS has been implicated in the development of various chronic and degenerative diseases such as cancer, respiratory, neurodegenerative, and digestive diseases. Under physiological conditions, the concentrations of ROS are subtlety regulated by antioxidants, which can be either generated endogenously or externally supplemented. A combination of antioxidant-deficiency and malnutrition may render individuals more vulnerable to oxidative stress, thereby increasing the risk of cancer occurrence. In addition, antioxidant defense can be overwhelmed during sustained inflammation such as in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, and neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and aging. Certain antioxidant vitamins, such as vitamin D, are essential in regulating biochemical pathways that lead to the proper functioning of the organs.
Everything You Should Know About Oxidative Stress
Free radicals and other reactive oxygen species ROS are constantly formed in the human body. Free-radical mechanisms have been implicated in the pathology of several human diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis, malaria, and rheumatoid arthritis and neurodegenerative diseases. Catalases in peroxisomes convert H 2 O 2 into water and O 2 and help to dispose of H 2 O 2 generated by the action of the oxidase enzymes that are located in these organelles. Other important H 2 O 2 -removing enzymes in human cells are the glutathione peroxidases. When produced in excess, ROS can cause tissue injury. However, tissue injury can itself cause ROS generation e.
Antioxidants are compounds that inhibit oxidation. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals , thereby leading to chain reactions that may damage the cells of organisms. Antioxidants such as thiols or ascorbic acid vitamin C terminate these chain reactions. To balance the oxidative stress , plants and animals maintain complex systems of overlapping antioxidants, such as glutathione and enzymes e.
Free radicals and other reactive oxygen species ROS are constantly formed in the human body. Free-radical mechanisms have been implicated in the pathology of several human diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis, malaria, and rheumatoid arthritis and neurodegenerative diseases. Catalases in peroxisomes convert H 2 O 2 into water and O 2 and help to dispose of H 2 O 2 generated by the action of the oxidase enzymes that are located in these organelles. Other important H 2 O 2 -removing enzymes in human cells are the glutathione peroxidases. When produced in excess, ROS can cause tissue injury.
This book serves as a comprehensive overview of the current scientific knowledge on the health effects of dietary and supplemental antioxidants such as vitamins C and E. Chapters integrate information from basic research and animal studies, epidemiologic studies, and clinical intervention trials. The popular media has taken great interest in antioxidants, with numerous articles emphasizing their role in preventing disease and the possible slowing of the aging process. These antioxidant vitamins may be important in preventing not only acute deficiency symptoms, but also chronic disorders such as heart disease and certain types of cancer. This book, therefore, is not only for scientists and doctors, but also for health writers, journalists, and informed lay people.
Хейл пожал плечами и направился к буфету. Буфет всегда был его первой остановкой. Попутно он бросил жадный взгляд на ноги Сьюзан, которые та вытянула под рабочим столом, и тяжело вздохнул. Сьюзан, не поднимая глаз, поджала ноги и продолжала следить за монитором. Хейл хмыкнул. Сьюзан уже привыкла к агрессивному поведению Хейла.
Это чистая правда! - кричал. - Мы должны позвать людей на помощь. Нам обоим грозит опасность. Сьюзан не верила ни единому его слову. Хейл подтянул ноги и немного приподнялся на корточках, желая переменить позу. Он открыл рот, чтобы что-то сказать, но сделать этого не успел.
Подобно крови, бегущей по жилам старого квартала Санта-Крус, они устремлялись к сердцу народа, его истории, к своему Богу, своему собору и алтарю. Где-то в уголке сознания Беккера звонили колокола. Я не умер. Он с трудом открыл глаза и увидел первые солнечные лучи.
- Что предпочитаешь. - У меня черный пояс по дзюдо. Беккер поморщился. - Предпочитаю вид спорта, в котором я могу выиграть. - Победа любой ценой? - улыбнулась Сьюзан.
Она взглянула на работающий монитор.