theory x and theory y of motivation pdf

Theory X And Theory Y Of Motivation Pdf

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During the past 30 years, managers have been bombarded with two competing approaches to the problems of human administration and organization. The first, usually called the classical school of organization, emphasizes the need for well-established lines of authority, clearly defined jobs, and authority equal to responsibility. The second, often called the participative approach, focuses on […].

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McGregor's XY Theory of Management

Douglas McGregor expressed his views of human nature in two sets of assumptions. Theory X stands for the set of traditional beliefs held, while Theory-Y stands for the set of beliefs based on researchers in behavioral science which are concerned with modern social views on the man at work. These two theories represent the extreme ranges of assumptions. Managers who accept theory-X assumptions tend to structure, control and closely supervise their employees.

These managers think that external control is appropriate for dealing with unreliable, irresponsible and immature people. Management by direction and control may not succeed as it is a questionable way of motivating people whose physiological and safety needs are reasonably satisfied and whose social, esteem and self-actualization needs are becoming predominant.

Given the drawbacks of theory-X, McGregor developed an alternative theory of human behavior called Theory-Y. Managers who accept theory-Y assumptions about the nature of man do not attempt to structure, control or closely supervise the employees.

Employees derive the satisfaction of social, esteem and self-actualization needs within this kind of environment. Thus theory-Y aims at the establishment of an environment in which employees can best achieve their personal goals by consulting, participating and communicating themselves to the objectives of the organization. In this process, employees are expected to exercise a large degree of internal motivation. Theory X assumes that lower-order needs to dominate individuals.

Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs to dominate individuals. There is no evidence to confirm that either set of assumptions is valid. Either Theory X or Theory Y assumptions may be appropriate in a particular situation. If properly implemented, such an environment would result in a high level of workforce motivation as employees work to satisfy their higher level of personal needs through their job.

In a nutshell, it may seem that Maslow, McClelland, Herzberg, and McGregor view motivation from a different perspective.

But basically, they emphasize similar sets of relationships. Maslow stresses the rarely satisfied higher level needs as the motivating force.

Theory X and Theory Y of Motivation by McGregor

Never miss a great news story! Get instant notifications from Economic Times Allow Not now. Key result areas or KRAs refer to the general metrics or parameters which the organisation has fixed for a specific role. Description: Key result areas KRAs broadly define the job profile for the employee and enable them to have better clarity of their role. KRAs should be well-defined, quantifiable, an.

Theory X and Theory Y are still referred to commonly in the field of management and motivation, and whilst more recent studies have questioned the rigidity of the model, Mcgregor's X-Y Theory remains a valid basic principle from which to develop positive management style and techniques. McGregor's XY Theory remains central to organisational development, and to improving organisational culture. McGregor's X-Y theory is a salutary and simple reminder of the natural rules for managing people, which under the pressure of day-to-day business are all too easily forgotten. Perhaps the most noticeable aspects of McGregor's XY Theory - and the easiest to illustrate - are found in the behaviours of autocratic managers and organisations which use autocratic management styles. Typically characteristics for an X-Theory manager are most or all of these:. Working for an X theory boss isn't easy - some extreme X-Theory managers make extremely unpleasant managers, but there are ways of managing these people upwards. Avoiding confrontation unless you are genuinely being bullied, which is a different matter and delivering results are key tactics.

Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human work motivation and management. The two theories proposed by McGregor describe contrasting models of workforce motivation applied by managers in human resource management , organizational behavior , organizational communication and organizational development. Theory X explains the importance of heightened supervision, external rewards, and penalties, while Theory Y highlights the motivating role of job satisfaction and encourages workers to approach tasks without direct supervision. Management use of Theory X and Theory Y can affect employee motivation and productivity in different ways, and managers may choose to implement strategies from both theories into their practices. McGregor also believed that self-actualization was the highest level of reward for employees. Theory X is based on assumptions regarding the typical worker.

Beyond Theory Y

Douglas McGregor expressed his views of human nature in two sets of assumptions. Theory X stands for the set of traditional beliefs held, while Theory-Y stands for the set of beliefs based on researchers in behavioral science which are concerned with modern social views on the man at work. These two theories represent the extreme ranges of assumptions. Managers who accept theory-X assumptions tend to structure, control and closely supervise their employees.

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И все тянул и тянул к ним свои пальцы. В Севилье Беккер лихорадочно обдумывал происходящее. Как они называют эти изотопы - U235 и U?.

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 Смотрите, полоска осталась незагорелой. Похоже, он носил кольцо. Офицер был поражен этим открытием. - Кольцо? - Он вдруг забеспокоился.

Он был настолько погружен в свои мысли, что не заметил человека в очках в тонкой металлической оправе, который следил за ним с другой стороны улицы. ГЛАВА 18 Стоя у громадного окна во всю стену своего кабинета в токийском небоскребе, Нуматака с наслаждением дымил сигарой и улыбался. Он не мог поверить в свою необыкновенную удачу. Он снова говорил с этим американцем, и если все прошло, как было задумано, то Танкадо сейчас уже нет в живых, а ключ, который он носил с собой, изъят. В том, что он, Нуматака, в конце концов решил приобрести ключ Энсея Танкадо, крылась определенная ирония.

Она была уверена, что никогда не говорила с шефом о поездке. Она повернулась. Неужели АНБ прослушивает мои телефонные разговоры. Стратмор виновато улыбнулся. - Сегодня утром Дэвид рассказал мне о ваших планах.

Theory X & Theory Y
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3 Comments

  1. Yesica P.

    Motivation is a huge part of success in life.

    01.05.2021 at 00:18 Reply
  2. Durandana C.

    To browse Academia.

    04.05.2021 at 00:23 Reply
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    04.05.2021 at 16:00 Reply

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