digital holography and three dimensional display principles and applications pdf

Digital Holography And Three Dimensional Display Principles And Applications Pdf

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Cartaxo, eds.

Studying the Recent Improvements in Holograms for Three-Dimensional Display

Displayers tend to become three-dimensional. The most advantage of holographic 3D displays is the possibility to observe 3D images without using glasses. The quality of created images by this method has surprised everyone. In this paper, the experimental steps of making a transmission hologram have been mentioned.

In what follows, current advances of this science-art will be discussed. The aim of this paper is to study the recent improvements in creating three-dimensional images and videos by means of holographic techniques. In the last section we discuss the potentials of holography to be applied in future. No matter how much one is familiar with holography, a scientist or an ordinary person, he would soon engage with holography spontaneously.

Increasing applications of holography will soon find their way through everyday life. Dennis Gabor found basic principles of holography while trying to improve the efficiency of transmission electron microscope in [ 1 ].

He performed his first experiments using mercury vapor lamp. After 23 years of experiments, Gabor won the Nobel Prize in Nowadays, the most beautiful 3D pictures and movies are created by means of holograms. Digital holography was invented in The improvement of computer science led to delivering the recording and reconstructing processes to the computers and hence the creation of computer generated holograms CGHs in which artificial holograms are made by means of numerical methods [ 2 ].

CGH-based display systems can be built nowadays. Their high cost makes them impractical for many applications. However, as various computer hardware costs decrease, CGH displays will become a viable alternative in the near future and thus pave the way for commercial real-time holographic 3D imaging [ 3 , 4 ].

Nowadays, holography has many growing applications in different sciences such as biology, medicine, IT, communication, architecture, security, and packing. There are optical applications existing for holography, and some of them are still developing [ 5 — 9 ]. Making holographic three-dimensional displays providing realistic images without the need for special eyewear is one the most interesting application of holography.

Michael Bove et al. A good holographic three-dimensional telepresence system has been developed using large-area photorefractive polymer with very high diffraction efficiency [ 11 ]. Scientists always try to make floating and updatable 3D holographic displays [ 12 — 17 ]. There is a paper which investigates the ability of holographic projection on a mobile device [ 18 ].

Takaki presents a new holographic three-dimensional display using a MEMS spatial light modulator that increases both viewing zone angle and screen size [ 19 ].

Updatable holography is considered as the ultimate technique for true 3D information recording and display. However, it is very hard to preserve the required features of both nonvolatility and reversibility which conflict with each other when the reading has the same wavelength as the recording.

Wu et al. The present paper has done a theoretical and experimental study on creating 3D images by means of holography. Also, a much more universal future is predicted for this technique. In this section, the experiments done for making transmission holograms are demonstrated. In these experiments, two kinds of transmission setups, off-axis single beam and split-beam setup, have been used, which have been, respectively, shown in Figures 1 and 2.

One can find the principle of holography in a simple way in [ 21 ]. Usually the coherent light source of lasers is used to record holograms, but it is possible to record the holograms using low-coherence light sources [ 22 ].

There is a paper that reports the reconstruction of an image which is taken by a camera system with monocolor LED illumination [ 23 ]. In another interesting work, the generation of a real-time phase-only color holographic video display system using LED illumination has been reported [ 24 ].

The intensity of the reference wave must be higher than the object wave, and this is an important factor in the diffraction efficiency. The index of refraction is 1. These types of plates have been designed for both transmission and reflection hologram recording. The applied laser is 1. The exposure process is done in mere darkness, and the exposure time is calculated 6 seconds. If the chosen object for recording is too large, too small, or transparent, the holographer must use special techniques to record and reconstruct it [ 26 , 27 ].

After recording, the plate is removed from its set place to perform the exposure procedure done in green safe light. In order to develop the plates the JD-2 developer, the most commonly used developer and processing chemical, is used. This process includes two steps, developing and bleaching, despite the old processes which had three steps, developing, bleaching, and fixing.

There are two real and virtual images in holographic reconstruction. Figures 3 and 4 represent the reconstructed virtual image and Figure 5 represents the real images.

The images are seen in the same red color of the He-Ne laser. The virtual image is orthoscopic and is reconstructed in the back of the plate and the real image is pseudoscopic and is reconstructed in front of the plate. In order to reconstruct the real image, the hologram has to be illuminated with the conjugated reference wave. Zhong et al. They made an in-line phase shifting digital hologram.

They found that in this condition the distance between the object and CCD and the distance between the point source of the reference wave center and CCD have to be measured carefully to achieve a high quality reconstructed image. In addition, other methods have been reported to improve the resolution of the reconstructed holographic images [ 29 ].

Reconstructed holograms deliver colored but mostly monochromatic images. To record a hologram in which both the 3D shape and the color of the object are accurately reproduced, at least three laser wavelengths are needed. There is an old paper about wavelength selection problem for true-color holography [ 30 ].

Previously, holographic plates were sensitive to a very limited spectral range of wavelengths; hence, they were classified into red-sensitive and green-sensitive holographic plates and films.

Nowadays, the holographic plates which are sensitive to the whole visible range of lights are easily manufactured, for example, TCC-2 photothermoplastic and PFGC silver halide. Though these full-colored plates expire sooner, they produce high-quality images. Recently, some other new panchromatic ultra-fine-grain silver halide materials are available from various manufacturerssuch as Sphera-s in Russia, Colour Holographics in UK, and Ultimate in France. There is one paper presenting a comprehensive comparison between these materials [ 31 ].

Most successful recording materials that have been used in holographic displays include photographic emulsions and photopolymers. Photopolymers have proved to be useful for different holographic applications. However, most photopolymers have certain undesirable features, such as the toxicity of some of their components or their low environmental compatibility.

For this reason, the Holography and Optical Processing Group at the University of Alicante has developed a new dry photopolymer with low toxicity and high thickness called Biophotopol [ 32 ].

When the thickness of holographic recording materials increases, it is necessary to study their behavior using real 3D models rather than 2D models. For example, Gallego et al. The optimization of photopolymer materials for holographic data storage has been reviewed [ 34 ].

Also, there is a comprehensive review which describes the current state-of-the-art of photorefractive polymers for holography [ 35 ]. Holographic recording materials are usually characterized by recording holographic gratings [ 36 ].

The main advantage of this method is the characterization and optimization of materials. For instance, it is possible to measure the signal-to-noise ratio using this method. To be used for updateable 3D displays, these materials must satisfy certain requirements, such as high diffraction efficiency and sensitivity, reversible recording, high spatial resolution, large area, long storage time, and fast recording. The process of Bacteriorhodopsin materials is based on conformational change and their efficiency is very low.

Another low efficiency material is Azo-dye whose process is based on molecular orientation. Li et al. Liquid crystal systems work drawing on liquid crystal orientation. The efficiency of such systems is very low. The efficiency of Electrothermoplastic materials is better than that of mentioned materials and their process is based on photoconduction and melting but their resolution is worse than them. Another erasable holographic material is Amorphous Chalcogenide which works with electronic structure changes.

Photorefractive polymers stand out as attractive candidates for updateable holographic displays. Tsutsumi et al. Ishii et al. Using some of photorefractive crystals has enabled scientists to use the recording media to record a new holographic image again, after recording and reconstructing the previous image. Lynn et al. Poly 4- diphenylamino benzylacrylate -based and poly N-vinylcarbazole -based photorefractive composites have shown a good ability for dynamic holographic displays [ 43 , 44 ].

Huang et al. This photopolymer has been made from rose bengal and methylene blue. Their analyses show that the scattering play an important role in the process of holographic recording and the scattering phenomenon may reduce the maximum diffraction efficiency in such holograms.

An attempt for optimization of diffraction efficiency can be found here [ 46 ]. Recently, a new and even more remarkable panchromatic photopolymer is available from Bayer Material Science BMS [ 48 ].

This material has many advantages such as long life time, stability, environmentally robust no shrinkage , and less postprocessing thermal or wet [ 31 ]. Another photopolymer receiving ever greater attention in the literature is phenanthrenequinone PQ doped poly methyl methacrylate PMMA photopolymer material. This material has many applications in various research areas such as holographic data storage, hybrid optoelectronics, solar concentrators, self-trapping of light, and diffractive optical elements [ 49 ].

These rewritable holograms are based on azobenzene-containing liquid-crystalline polymers. This type of recorded holograms can be erased by thermal treatment or photoirradiation with a single writing beam. One can find another good paper reporting development of an updatable holographic three-dimensional display in [ 51 ].

Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Display

Holography is the science and practice of making holograms. A hologram, also known as a holograph , [1] from the Greek for "whole description" or "whole picture" is a real world recording of an interference pattern which uses diffraction to reproduce a 3D light field , resulting in an image which still has the depth, parallax , and other properties of the original scene. The holographic medium, for example the object produced by a holographic process which may be referred to as a hologram is usually unintelligible when viewed under diffuse ambient light. It is an encoding of the light field as an interference pattern of variations in the opacity , density , or surface profile of the photographic medium. When suitably lit, the interference pattern diffracts the light into an accurate reproduction of the original light field, and the objects that were in it exhibit visual depth cues such as parallax and perspective that change realistically with the different angles of viewing.

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Digital Holography And Wavefront Sensing Principles

Displayers tend to become three-dimensional. The most advantage of holographic 3D displays is the possibility to observe 3D images without using glasses. The quality of created images by this method has surprised everyone. In this paper, the experimental steps of making a transmission hologram have been mentioned.

Inside, pulled them all back somehow, then he took another. Aug 06, infertility survival handbook by elizabeth swire falker riverhead trade paperback paperback They would be at least another ten minutes.

Holography

All rights reserved. Leith and J. Upatnieks, "Wavefront reconstruction with diffused illumination and three-dimensional objects," J. Goodman and R. Lawrence, "Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms," Appl.

Digital or electronic holography and its application to 3-D display is one of the formidable problems of evolving areas of high technology that has been receiving great attention in recent years. The realization of life-size interactive 3-D displays has been a seemingly unobtainable goal. Technology is not quite at that level yet, but advances in 3-D display now allow us to take important steps toward the achievement of this objective. The reader is presented with the state-of-the-art developments in both digital holography and 3-D display techniques.

It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Digital or electronic holography and its application to 3-D display is one of the formidable problems of evolving areas of high technology that has been receiving great attention in recent years. The realization of life-size interactive 3-D displays has been a seemingly unobtainable goal. Technology is not quite at that level yet, but advances in 3-D display now allow us to take important steps toward the achievement of this objective. The reader is presented with the state-of-the-art developments in both digital holography and 3-D display techniques.


Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Display Digital Holography Principles 53 Digital Holographic Microscopy Experiments 58 Multi-Wavelength Phase.


International Journal of Optics

The system can't perform the operation now. Try again later. Citations per year. Duplicate citations. The following articles are merged in Scholar. Their combined citations are counted only for the first article.

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2 Comments

  1. Alessandro J.

    Digital (or electronic) holography and its application to 3-D display is one of ISBN ; Digitally watermarked, DRM-free; Included format: PDF.

    28.04.2021 at 09:13 Reply
  2. Lixitihor

    About the Book Digital (or electronic) holography and its application to 3-D display is one of the formidable problems of evolving areas of Principles and Applications Pages PDF · Three-Dimensional Projection Display System.

    29.04.2021 at 18:30 Reply

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