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- Six Key Approaches to Counselling and Therapy
- Six Key Approaches to Counselling and Therapy
- 4 Counselling Approaches Explained
- Approaches to Counselling
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Six Key Approaches to Counselling and Therapy
A short summary of this paper. Rather their creation is a process in which many personal, academic and professional factors interact. Furthermore, the theorists covered in this book tended to refine and rework their ideas. In addition other people have contributed to the development of their theoretical positions.
Thus theory creation and development is an intensely human and ongoing process combining both subjective experiencing and objective information. As a counselling and psychotherapy trainee, you too are engaging in a pro- cess of trying to make sense of numerous personal, academic and professional factors to create and develop a way of seeing the therapeutic world that has validity for you and gets results for your clients.
Just like the major theorists, you are likely to find yourself continually refining and reworking your ideas. Working with a theoretical approaches text, such as this one, is an early step in the exciting and life-long endeavour of creating, developing and refining your theory and practice. Literally psychotherapy means healing the mind or the soul. Nowadays, most commonly the meaning of psychotherapy is broadened to become healing the mind by psychological methods that are applied by suitably trained and quali- fied practitioners.
However, as illustrated in this book, there are different approaches to psychotherapy and, consequently, it is more accurate to speak of the psychotherapies rather than a uniform method of psychotherapy.
Moreover, there are different goals for psychotherapy including dealing with severe men- tal disorder, addressing specific anxieties and phobias, and helping people find meaning and purpose in their lives.
Each of the different therapeutic approaches may be more suitable for attaining some goals than others. Does counselling differ from psychotherapy? Attempts to differentiate between counselling and psychotherapy are never wholly successful.
Both counselling and psychotherapy represent diverse rather than uniform knowl- edge and activities and both use the same theoretical models. Nevertheless, some people such as Corsini try to distinguish counsel- ling from psychotherapy. For instance, psychotherapists may be more thor- oughly trained; psychotherapy may focus more deeply on uncovering unconscious influences and be longer term; and psychotherapy may be more a medical term that characterizes the work of psychiatrists and clinical psychia- trists, whereas counselling relates more to activities in non-medical settings: for example, college counselling centres.
All of these distinctions can be refuted: for example, there are psychodynamic counsellors; both counselling and psy- chotherapy can be either brief, medium-term or long-term; and much counsel- ling is performed both by medically and non-medically qualified people inside and outside of medical settings. Though some perceive different shadings of meaning between counselling and psychotherapy, when it comes to the offering of professional as contrasted with voluntary services, similarities outweigh differences.
Frequently the terms are used interchangeably and most theorists view their work as applicable to both counsel- ling and psychotherapy, Carl Rogers and Albert Ellis being prime examples. Counselling and psychotherapy also overlap with coaching. Life coaching involves coaches using their skills to help generally adequately functioning peo- ple improve and maintain how they perform and live in different aspects of their lives — personal, relationships, business and sports.
Though a relatively recent phenomenon, coaching is undoubtedly here to stay. In varying degrees, much of this book is relevant to coaching as well as to counselling and psychotherapy.
Psychotherapy refers both to the theoretical approach and to the process of helping clients. Therapist refers to the providers of therapy services to clients, be they psychoanalysts, psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, counselling psychologists, counsellors, psychotherapists, social workers or other suitably trained and qualified persons. Client refers to the recipient of therapeutic services whether inside or outside of medical settings.
A school of counselling and psychotherapy is a grouping of different theoretical approaches that are similar to one another in terms of certain important characteristics that distinguish them from theoreti- cal approaches in other counselling and psychotherapy schools Probably the three main schools that have influenced contemporary indi- vidual counselling and psychotherapy practice are the psychodynamic school, the humanistic school, and the cognitive behaviour school.
Sometimes the humanistic school incorporates existential therapeutic approaches and then can get the broader title of the humanistic-existential school. A fourth school, the postmodern school, comprises some more recent approaches.
In addition, there are other recent theoretical approaches that do not fit neatly into this school heading, for instance positive therapy. Be careful not to exaggerate the differences between counselling and psychotherapy schools, since there are similarities as well differences among them. Box 1. BOX 1. Psychodynamic approaches emphasize the importance of unconscious influences on how people func- tion. Analysis or interpretation of dreams can be a central part of psychotherapy.
In cognitive behaviour approaches, therapists assess clients and then intervene to help them to change specific ways of thinking and behaving that sustain their problems. Rather than conceptualizing progress as a departure from and rejection of the past, postmodernism draws on the past to serve the present. Personal behaviour results from these cognitive processes and is therefore open to change. The postmodern school therapies have been listed under more recent therapies.
So that readers can obtain a sense of the history of the development of ideas within counselling and psychotherapy, I have included the dates of the originators of each approach. The descriptions provided in Box 1. Psychoanalysis, which may last for many years, emphasizes working through the transference, in which clients perceive their therapists as reincarnations of important figures from their childhoods, and the interpretation of dreams.
Analytical therapy Originator: Carl Jung — Divides the unconscious into the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious, the latter being a storehouse of universal archetypes and primordial images. Psychotherapy includes analysis of the transference, active imagination and dream analysis.
Jung was particularly interested in working with clients in the second half of life. Psychotherapy emphasizes a relationship char- acterized by accurate empathy, respect and non-possessive warmth.
Gestalt therapy Originator: Fritz Perls — Individuals become neurotic by losing touch with their senses and interfering with their capacity to make strong contact with their environments. Transactional analysis Originator: Eric Berne —70 Transactions between people take place between their Parent, Adult and Child ego states. Existential therapy Originators: Irvin Yalom — and Rollo May —94 Draws on the work of existential philosophers and focuses on helping clients deal with anxieties connected with four main ultimate concerns of human existence: death, freedom, isolation and meaninglessness.
Skinner —90 ; practice, Joseph Wolpe —97 Emphasizes the learning of behaviour through classical conditioning, operant conditioning and modelling. Psychotherapy consists of learning adaptive behaviours by methods such as systematic desensitization, reinforcement programmes and behaviour rehearsal. Rational emotive behaviour therapy Originator: Albert Ellis — Emphasizes clients re-indoctrinating themselves with irrational beliefs that contrib- ute to unwanted feelings and self-defeating actions.
Psychotherapy consists of educating clients in how to test the reality of their thinking by interventions such as Socratic questioning and conducting real-life experiments. Based on a mul- timodal assessment, therapists are technically eclectic, using a range of techniques selected on the basis of empirical evidence and client need.
Specific uses of language and styles of questioning are used to encourage creativity and flexible thinking around the relevant issues. Narrative therapy Originators: Michael White — and David Epston — Images and concepts of past and present by which people define and give meaning to their lives derive from selective memory strongly influenced by their social, cultural and historical contexts.
Positive therapy focuses on promoting wellbeing, resilience and personal strengths, thus weakening the negative factors that maintain symptoms and distress. Mindfulness in therapy Originating with the Buddha around BC An integrative approach to therapy with a theoretical background drawn from Buddhist psychology.
Mindfulness meditation supports the therapist in bringing an embodied, attuned presence to the therapeutic relationship and short meditation practices may be brought into therapy. There is an emphasis on cultivating moment-to-moment aware- ness of experience as it arises and on bringing a reflective enquiry process to experience. In reality, many counsellors and therapists regard themselves as working in either eclectic or integrative ways. Though addressed in the final chapter, a detailed discussion of eclecticism and integration is beyond the scope of this book.
Suffice it for now to say that eclecticism is the practice of drawing from different counselling and psychotherapy schools in formulating client problems and implementing treatment interventions. A theory is a formulation of the underlying principles of certain observed phe- nomena that have been verified to some extent.
A criterion of the power of a theory is the extent to which it generates predictions that are confirmed when relevant empirical data are collected. The more a theory receives confirmation or verification, the more accurate it is. Facts strengthen rather than replace theories. Why are they useful? Therapists cannot avoid being counselling and psychotherapy theorists.
All make assumptions about how clients become and stay the way they are and about change. Three of the main functions of counselling and psychotherapy theories are: providing conceptual frameworks, providing languages, and generating research. Theories provide therapists with concepts that allow them to think systematically about human develop- ment and the therapeutic process. Counselling and psychotherapy theoretical approaches may be viewed as possessing four main dimensions if they are to be stated adequately.
In this context behaviour incorporates both observable behaviour and internal behav- iour or thinking. The dimensions are: 1. They are partial rather than complete or comprehensive theoretical statements. Arguably, some of the missing concepts in the theo- ries are implicit rather than explicit. Theorists select for more thorough treat- ment those dimensions of a theory that they consider important.
Another function of theories is similar to that provided by languages. Languages are vocab- ularies and linguistic symbols that allow communication about phenomena. Like the major spoken languages of English, Spanish and Mandarin Chinese, the differ- ent theorists develop languages for the phenomena they wish to describe: for instance, cognitive, psychoanalytic or person-centred languages. Language can both unite and divide.
It can encourage communication between people who speak the same language, but discourage communication if they do not. Each theoretical position has concepts described in unique language. The psychotherapy process is a series of conversations requiring languages.
In any therapeutic relationship there are at least four kinds of conversations going on: namely, therapist and client inner and outer speech.
All therapists who oper- ate out of explicit theoretical frameworks are likely to talk to themselves about clients in the language of that framework.
In varying degrees their therapeutic practice will match their language. Therapists do not always act according to how they think.
Six Key Approaches to Counselling and Therapy
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4 Counselling Approaches Explained
The Basic Counselling Skills Module of the Community Counsellor Training Toolkit starts with a definition of counselling, specifically person-centred counselling, which is the theoretical basis for the counselling approach taught in this Toolkit. Download Free PDF. Counseling may sometimes be needed to aid one in coping with a crisis. Advanced Skills and Interventions in Therapeutic Counseling is written for advanced students and professionals. The purpose of this study is to design and describe the effectivity of basic counselling skills training on family planning counsellor.
Learning Skills:. Subscribe to our FREE newsletter and start improving your life in just 5 minutes a day. There are a number of different approaches used by professional counsellors.
Approaches to Counselling
He presents two approaches of counselling from each of the main schools of therapy - psychodynamic, humanistic and cognitive behavioural schools. I understand the author contacted many theorists to gather up to date information on each approach. Mental Health Practice. Alternatively, you can purchase access to this article for the next seven days. Buy now. Want to read more? Try Nursing Standard Student Already subscribed?
June 01, by Counseling Staff. Theoretical approaches are an understandably integral part of the therapeutic process. But with so many different methods out there, how do you know which counseling approach works best for you? These theories are integrated throughout the curriculum of Counseling Northwestern and are built into a foundation grounded in the psychodynamic perspective.
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Professional counselors apply a variety of clinical approaches in their work, and there are hundreds of clinical counseling approaches to choose from. To answer that question, it is first necessary to understand that no one counseling approach is better than the rest. That is because counseling approaches are based upon theories about human function and change as opposed to hard evidence. Determining whether one counseling approach works better than another is difficult, because there are so many variables to consider in the counseling process. For example, if we try to compare the effectiveness of two counselors applying the same theoretical model, there can be major differences in the counseling outcome due to differences in the clients' histories and situations, differences in the counselors' communication styles, and even differences in client and counselor mood on the day of the comparison.
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It is probably not surprising to learn that different counsellors have different approaches to the way they counsel. These differences stem from a variety of considerations, including their education, their practice experience, their personal style and their belief systems. A therapeutic approach is the theory by which a psychologist or counsellor frames how they view human relationships and the issues that occur for people throughout their lives. It is not at all uncommon for a trained professional counsellor to be educated in a number of different theories.
In this section, we compare the different counselling approaches , looking at the differences and the similarities. We compare person-centred therapy, transactional analysis, and rational emotive behavioural therapy. We also look at the future of counselling.