# Numericals On Resistance In Series And Parallel Class 10 Pdf

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## Electricity-Sample Questions

In Grade 10 and Grade 11 you learnt about electric circuits and we introduced three quantities which are fundamental to dealing with electric circuits. These quantities are closely related and are current, voltage potential difference and resistance. To recap:. Charge moving through a battery gains energy which is then lost moving through the circuit. Work must be done for a charge to move through a resistor. These quantities can be related, in circuit elements whose resistance remains constant, by Ohm's law.

This ratio we call resistance. This is equivalent to saying that the amount of electric current through a metal conductor, at a constant temperature, in a circuit is proportional to the voltage across the conductor and can be described by. In other words, at constant temperature, the resistance of the conductor is constant, independent of the voltage applied across it or current passed through it.

We have focused on the properties of a single component. Now we need to look at a collection of components in a circuit. You will often hear people switch between using the terms voltage and potential difference to describe the same quantity. This is correct but very important to note. Circuits don't consist of a single element and we've learnt about how voltage, current and resistance are affected in circuits with multiple resistors.

There are two basic layouts we consider for a network of resistors, series and parallel. Resistors in series and resistors in parallel have different features when talking about current, voltage and equivalent resistance. Learners conduct an investigation to verify Ohm's law. They measure the current through a conducting wire for different potential differences across its ends.

The results obtained are shown in the graph below. Write down the coordinates of the plotted point on the graph beyond which Ohm's law is not obeyed. Give a possible reason for the deviation from Ohm's law as shown in the graph. Assume that all measurements are correct. A circuit may consist of a combination of parallel and series networks that can in turn be in parallel or series. We can treat parts of the total circuit independently by applying Ohm's Law to each of the components.

Resistors are in series if they are consecutive elements in the sequence of the circuit and there are no branches between them. It makes sense to remind ourselves of why these are consistent with other topics we have covered previously:.

We can use Ohm's Law to find the total resistance R in the circuit, and then calculate the unknown resistance using:. We are given the potential difference across the cell and the current in the circuit, as well as the resistances of two of the three resistors.

We can use Ohm's Law to calculate the potential difference across the known resistors. A parallel configuration is when the current splits into a number of branches which contain components resistors in our case.

A branch may contain multiple resistors in series and still be part of the parallel configuration. Since the resistors are ohmic in nature, we can use Ohm's Law.

However, there are two resistors in the circuit and we need to find the total resistance. Calculate the current through each of the ammeters when the switch is closed and when it is open. We need to determine the current through the cell and each of the parallel resistors. We have been given the potential difference across the cell and the resistances of the resistors, so we can use Ohm's Law to calculate the current. Both methods will result in the correct answer if you don't make any calculation errors but one is shorter.

We know that for a configuration with just two resistors in parallel and a cell as in this case, the potential difference across the cell is the same as the potential difference across each of the resistors in parallel.

To investigate the changes in current and voltage when branches of circuits are open or closed.. For this investigation, configure a circuit with resistors in both series and in parallel. For example, try:. You can do it!

Let us help you to study smarter to achieve your goals. Siyavula Practice guides you at your own pace when you do questions online. Using the concepts of Ohm's law , and electric circuits , determine the following:. We need to determine whether the circuit is a series, parallel, or combination type of circuit. We do this by looking at how current flows through a circuit. Recall that current is the movement of electric charge from a higher potential to a lower potential.

We assume that the flowing charge is positive conventional current. This means that the charges start at the positive terminal of our power source battery. Here the charges have lots of electrical potential energy. The charges then move towards the negative terminal through the path that is created by the components and wires of the circuit. During this process, the electrical potential energy is converted into thermal energy by the resistors.

Therefore, the charges have less electrical potential energy when they reach the negative terminal of the power source battery. From the diagram it is clear that there is only one path for the current to flow, since the circuit does not split into two or more paths. This means that the current flows through all the components, one after the other in series. Recall that in a series circuit the equivalent resistance can be calculated by summing the resistance values of the individual resistors:.

Potential difference, or voltage is a way to describe the difference in electrical potential energy across a component in a circuit. Remember that a resistor converts electrical potential energy into thermal energy, so the electrical potential is higher on the "in" side compared to the "out" side of a resistor.

This is represented as:. This is shown in the diagram below:. We get:. To find the current we first need to find the equivalent resistance. We start by calculating the equivalent resistance of the parallel combination:. Now we have a circuit with two resistors in series so we can calculate the equivalent resistance:. The current is the same through series combinations of resistors and we can consider the entire parallel set of resistors as one series resistor.

There are two resistors in parallel so we calculate the equivalent resistance of the combination:. Two ohmic resistors are connected in series. Which ONE of the measured quantities is the dependent variable? Use this to calculate the resistance of the conducting wire. Resistors connected in series Resistors are in series if they are consecutive elements in the sequence of the circuit and there are no branches between them.

Draw the circuit and fill in all known values. Determine how to approach the problem. Determine how to approach the problem We are given the potential difference across the cell and the current in the circuit, as well as the resistances of two of the three resistors.

Equivalent resistance in a parallel network A parallel configuration is when the current splits into a number of branches which contain components resistors in our case. Determine what is required We are required to calculate the total current flowing in the circuit. Determine how to approach the problem Since the resistors are ohmic in nature, we can use Ohm's Law. Determine how to approach the problem We need to determine the current through the cell and each of the parallel resistors.

There are two alternative approaches we could adopt: we could use the fact that the potential difference across each of the resistors is the same as the potential difference across the battery because they are in a parallel configuration and then use Ohm's Law; or we could determine the equivalent resistance of the circuit and the total current and then use that to determine the current through each of the resistors.

Now determine the current through one of the parallel resistors We know that for a configuration with just two resistors in parallel and a cell as in this case, the potential difference across the cell is the same as the potential difference across each of the resistors in parallel.

Practise now to improve your marks You can do it! Sign up to improve your marks. Exercise What type of circuit is shown in the diagram? The flow of current is indicated by the arrows in the diagram below: From the diagram it is clear that there is only one path for the current to flow, since the circuit does not split into two or more paths. The circuit shown in the diagram is a series circuit. We know that the circuit in the diagram is a series type circuit. For the following circuit, calculate:.

Calculate the total current in this circuit if both resistors are ohmic. Determine the equivalent resistance of the following circuits:. The diagram shows an electric circuit consisting of a battery and four resistors.

## 10.3: Resistors in Series and Parallel

Total power in a parallel circuit is the sum of the power consumed on the individual branches. Chapter 07 Series-Parallel Circuits Source And now c we are left with R in parallel with R 3. What would happen if they were wired in series? Some circuits include both series and parallel parts. Identify a series and parallel circuit, state the rules for series circuits, apply the rules to a circuit and calculate resistance, explain why and apply to more complex circuits.

If two or more capacitors are connected in series, the overall effect is that of a single equivalent capacitor having the sum total of the plate spacings of the individual capacitors. The formula for calculating the series total capacitance is the same form as for calculating parallel resistances :. If two or more capacitors are connected in parallel, the overall effect is that of a single equivalent capacitor having the sum total of the plate areas of the individual capacitors. The formula for calculating the parallel total capacitance is the same form as for calculating series resistances :. As you will no doubt notice, this is exactly the opposite of the phenomenon exhibited by resistors. With resistors, series connections result in additive values while parallel connections result in diminished values.

Last updated at April 26, by Teachoo. Explanation - The resistivity of a substance depends on the nature of the material and the physical conditions like temperature. It does not depend on the shape of the resistor. Explanation - The current flowing in a circuit does not depend upon the arrangement of the different components, unless they are connected in a different way Series is changed into parallel, or vice versa. Extra Question A current of 1 A is drawn by a filament of an electric bulb. His teacher told that the circuit diagram needs correction. Study the circuit diagram and redraw it after making all corrections.

Electricity. Page - 1. NCERT CBSE Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter In Chapter Questions: (Page). 1. In the series combination, current through all resistors and in circuit will be same. Thus, current through Judge the equivalent resistance when the following are connected in parallel – (a). 1 Ω and Ω.

## Practice Problems for Electricity Class 10

In this section we look at how to analyse circuits which contain resistors in series and parallel combinations. The figure below shows a basic circuit which contains a series-parallel combination of resistors. The total circuit resistance from point A to C is the series resistor R1 in combination with the parallel components. Also the resistors R3 , R2 and R1 form a parallel combination.

Name the unit of a electrical resistance b resistivity 2. Define One Ohm 3. Define Resistivity 4.

Most circuits have more than one resistor. If several resistors are connected together and connected to a battery, the current supplied by the battery depends on the equivalent resistance of the circuit. The equivalent resistance of a combination of resistors depends on both their individual values and how they are connected. In a series circuit , the output current of the first resistor flows into the input of the second resistor; therefore, the current is the same in each resistor. In a parallel circuit , all of the resistor leads on one side of the resistors are connected together and all the leads on the other side are connected together.

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parallel circuit, the sum of the resistances will always be less than the value of the smallest resistor. So with combination X, we have one resistor in series with.

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Example 1: There are three resistors joined in series in a system having resistance equal to 10 Ω, 20 Ω and 30 Ω respectively. If the potential difference of the.

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