anatomy and physiology of eustachian tube pdf

Anatomy And Physiology Of Eustachian Tube Pdf

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A comprehensive survey of the anatomy of the eustachian tube seems timely in view of its importance in relation to some of the problems of aviation and submarine medicine. Bartholomaeus Eustachius is accredited with its first description. Most of the literature dealing with the eustachian tube in modern times is concerned primarily with its function and particularly with the controversy pertaining to whether it is normally open or closed. For a review of the literature bearing on this and related questions the reader is referred to Rich 3 and Perlman.

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In anatomy , the Eustachian tube , also known as the auditory tube or pharyngotympanic tube , [1] is a tube that links the nasopharynx to the middle ear , of which it is also a part. In humans and other land animals, both the middle ear and the ear canal are normally filled with air. Unlike the air of the ear canal, however, the air of the middle ear is not in direct contact with the atmosphere outside the body; thus, a pressure difference can develop between the atmospheric pressure of the ear canal and the middle ear. When taking off in an aircraft, the ambient air pressure goes from higher on the ground to lower in the sky. The air in the middle ear expands as the plane gains altitude, and pushes its way into the back of the nose and mouth; on the way down, the volume of air in the middle ear shrinks, and a slight vacuum is produced. Active opening of the Eustachian tube through actions like swallowing or the Valsalva maneuver is required to equalize the pressure between the middle ear and the ambient atmosphere as the plane descends. A diver also experiences this change in pressure, but with greater rates of pressure change; active opening of the Eustachian tube is required more frequently as the diver goes deeper, into higher pressure.


Anatomy and physiology of eustachian tube and middle ear related to otitis media. Charles D. This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please.


Eustachian tube

The following article is written to provide a general understanding of the structures within the auditory system and how they function. The auditory system is comprised of three components; the outer, middle, and inner ear, all of which work together to transfer sounds from the environment to the brain. Pinna The pinna or auricle is a concave cartilaginous structure, which collects and directs sound waves traveling in air into the ear canal or external auditory meatus. Ear Canal The ear canal or external auditory meatus is approximately 1.

External auditory canal or tube. This is the tube that connects the outer ear to the inside or middle ear. Tympanic membrane eardrum. The tympanic membrane divides the external ear from the middle ear. Three small bones that are connected and transmit the sound waves to the inner ear.

Eustachian Tube, Anatomy and Physiology

Human ear , organ of hearing and equilibrium that detects and analyzes sound by transduction or the conversion of sound waves into electrochemical impulses and maintains the sense of balance equilibrium.

Welcome to Thieme E-Books & E-Journals

A comprehensive survey of the anatomy of the eustachian tube seems timely in view of its importance in relation to some of the problems of aviation and submarine medicine. Bartholomaeus Eustachius is accredited with its first description. Most of the literature dealing with the eustachian tube in modern times is concerned primarily with its function and particularly with the controversy pertaining to whether it is normally open or closed. For a review of the literature bearing on this and related questions the reader is referred to Rich 3 and Perlman.

Eustachian tube — connects the middle ear and the nasopharynx and serves to equalize pressure, clear secretions, and protect the middle ear. The physiological status of the Eustachian tube ET is critical to the proper functioning of the middle ear and normal hearing. Therefore, it is essential to understand the factors that give rise to normal function of the ET: the anatomy and physiology of the Eustachian tube.

NCBI Bookshelf. Jarett Casale ; Jason D. Authors Jarett Casale 1 ; Jason D. Hatcher 2. The Eustachian tube, also known as the pharyngotympanic tube, is a narrow fibrocartilaginous duct that connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx.

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