networking definition and examples pdf

Networking Definition And Examples Pdf

By Ann Y.
On Friday, April 16, 2021 1:25:58 PM

File Name: networking definition and examples .zip
Size: 1365Kb
Published: 16.04.2021

A wide area network WAN is a telecommunications network that extends over a large geographic area for the primary purpose of computer networking. Wide area networks are often established with leased telecommunication circuits.


Successful leaders have a nose for opportunity and a knack for knowing whom to tap to get things done. These qualities depend on a set of strategic networking skills that nonleaders rarely possess.

Most people acknowledge that networking—creating a fabric of personal contacts to provide support, feedback, insight, and resources—is an essential activity for an ambitious manager.

For some, this is a distasteful reality. But even people who understand that networking is a legitimate and necessary part of their jobs can be discouraged by the payoff—because they are doing it in too limited a fashion. On the basis of a close study of 30 emerging leaders, the authors outline three distinct forms of networking. It involves cultivating stronger relationships with colleagues whose membership in the network is clear; their roles define them as stakeholders.

Strategic networking puts the tools of networking in the service of business goals. At this level, a manager creates the kind of network that will help uncover and capitalize on new opportunities for the company.

The ability to move to this level of networking turns out to be a key test of leadership. Companies often recognize that networks are valuable, and they create explicit programs to support them. But typically these programs facilitate only operational networking. Likewise, industry associations provide formal contexts for personal networking. The unfortunate effect is to give managers the impression that they know how to network and are doing so sufficiently. What separates successful leaders from the rest of the pack?

Networking: creating a tissue of personal contacts to provide the support, feedback, and resources needed to get things done. Yet many leaders avoid networking. Others disdain it as manipulative. You need all three types of networks. But to really succeed, you must master strategic networking—by interacting regularly with people who can open your eyes to new business opportunities and help you capitalize on them. The most effective leaders understand the differences among the three types of networks and how to build them.

An investment banker invited key clients to the theatre a passion of hers several times a year. When Henrik Balmer became the production manager and a board member of a newly bought-out cosmetics firm, improving his network was the last thing on his mind.

The main problem he faced was time: Where would he find the hours to guide his team through a major upgrade of the production process and then think about strategic issues like expanding the business? The only way he could carve out time and still get home to his family at a decent hour was to lock himself—literally—in his office. Meanwhile, there were day-to-day issues to resolve, like a recurring conflict with his sales director over custom orders that compromised production efficiency.

Networking, which Henrik defined as the unpleasant task of trading favors with strangers, was a luxury he could not afford. But when a new acquisition was presented at a board meeting without his input, he abruptly realized he was out of the loop—not just inside the company, but outside, too—at a moment when his future in the company was at stake. Over the past two years, we have been following a cohort of 30 managers making their way through what we call the leadership transition, an inflection point in their careers that challenges them to rethink both themselves and their roles.

Their discomfort is understandable. When challenged to move beyond their functional specialties and address strategic issues facing the overall business, many managers do not immediately grasp that this will involve relational—not analytical—tasks. Not surprisingly, for every manager who instinctively constructs and maintains a useful network, we see several who struggle to overcome this innate resistance.

Yet the alternative to networking is to fail—either in reaching for a leadership position or in succeeding at it. Watching our emerging leaders approach this daunting task, we discovered that three distinct but interdependent forms of networking— operational, personal, and strategic —played a vital role in their transitions. The first helped them manage current internal responsibilities, the second boosted their personal development, and the third opened their eyes to new business directions and the stakeholders they would need to enlist.

While our managers differed in how well they pursued operational and personal networking, we discovered that almost all of them underutilized strategic networking.

The Three Forms of Networking Managers who think they are adept at networking are often operating only at an operational or personal level. Effective leaders learn to employ networks for strategic purposes. All managers need to build good working relationships with the people who can help them do their jobs. The number and breadth of people involved can be impressive—such operational networks include not only direct reports and superiors but also peers within an operational unit, other internal players with the power to block or support a project, and key outsiders such as suppliers, distributors, and customers.

The purpose of this type of networking is to ensure coordination and cooperation among people who have to know and trust one another in order to accomplish their immediate tasks.

Although operational networking was the form that came most naturally to the managers we studied, nearly every one had important blind spots regarding people and groups they depended on to make things happen. He was both the youngest and the least-experienced board member, and his instinctive response to these new responsibilities was to reestablish his functional credentials.

Acting on a hint from the founder that the company might go public, Alistair undertook a reorganization of the accounting department that would enable the books to withstand close scrutiny. Thus, most operational networking occurs within an organization, and ties are determined in large part by routine, short-term demands. Relationships formed with outsiders, such as board members, customers, and regulators, are directly task-related and tend to be bounded and constrained by demands determined at a higher level.

Of course, an individual manager can choose to deepen and develop the ties to different extents, and all managers exercise discretion over who gets priority attention. Nonetheless, the substantial constraints on network membership mean these connections are unlikely to deliver value to managers beyond assistance with the task at hand. As a manager moves into a leadership role, his or her network must reorient itself externally and toward the future.

The typical manager in our group was more concerned with sustaining cooperation within the existing network than with building relationships to face nonroutine or unforeseen challenges.

But as a manager moves into a leadership role, his or her network must reorient itself externally and toward the future. We observed that once aspiring leaders like Alistair awaken to the dangers of an excessively internal focus, they begin to seek kindred spirits outside their organizations. Simultaneously, they become aware of the limitations of their social skills, such as a lack of knowledge about professional domains beyond their own, which makes it difficult for them to find common ground with people outside their usual circles.

Through professional associations, alumni groups, clubs, and personal interest communities, managers gain new perspectives that allow them to advance in their careers. This is what we mean by personal networking. Many of the managers we study question why they should spend precious time on an activity so indirectly related to the work at hand. The answer is that these contacts provide important referrals, information, and, often, developmental support such as coaching and mentoring.

A newly appointed factory director, for example, faced with a turnaround-or-close-down situation that was paralyzing his staff, joined a business organization—and through it met a lawyer who became his counsel in the turnaround. Eventually, he found two mentors. A personal network can also be a safe space for personal development and as such can provide a foundation for strategic networking.

The experience of Timothy, a principal in a midsize software company, is a good example. Like his father, Timothy stuttered. When he had the opportunity to prepare for meetings, his stutter was not an issue, but spontaneous encounters inside and outside the company were dreadfully painful. To solve this problem, he began accepting at least two invitations per week to the social gatherings he had assiduously ignored before.

Before each event, he asked who else had been invited and did background research on the other guests so that he could initiate conversations. As his stutter diminished, he also applied himself to networking across his company, whereas previously he had taken refuge in his technical expertise.

Like Timothy, several of our emerging leaders successfully used personal networking as a relatively safe way to expose problems and seek insight into solutions—safe, that is, compared with strategic networking, in which the stakes are far higher. Personal networks are largely external, made up of discretionary links to people with whom we have something in common.

As a result, what makes a personal network powerful is its referral potential. According to the famous six degrees of separation principle, our personal contacts are valuable to the extent that they help us reach, in as few connections as possible, the far-off person who has the information we need.

In watching managers struggle to widen their professional relationships in ways that feel both natural and legitimate to them, we repeatedly saw them shift their time and energy from operational to personal networking.

For people who have rarely looked outside their organizations, this is an important first step, one that fosters a deeper understanding of themselves and the environments in which they move. Aspiring leaders may find people who awaken new interests but fail to become comfortable with the power players at the level above them.

Or they may achieve new influence within a professional community but fail to harness those ties in the service of organizational goals. When managers begin the delicate transition from functional manager to business leader, they must start to concern themselves with broad strategic issues. Lateral and vertical relationships with other functional and business unit managers—all people outside their immediate control—become a lifeline for figuring out how their own contributions fit into the big picture.

Thus strategic networking plugs the aspiring leader into a set of relationships and information sources that collectively embody the power to achieve personal and organizational goals. Executives who oversee management development know how to spot critical inflection points: the moments when highly successful people must change their perspective on what is important and, accordingly, how they spend their time.

Many organizations still promote people on the basis of their performance in roles whose requirements differ dramatically from those of leadership roles. And many new leaders feel that they are going it alone, without coaching or guidance.

By being sensitive to the fact that most strong technical or functional managers lack the capabilities required to build strategic networks that advance their personal and professional goals, human resources and learning professionals can take steps to help in this important area. For example, Genesis Park, an innovative in-house leadership development program at PricewaterhouseCoopers, focuses explicitly on building networks.

The five-month program, during which participants are released from their client responsibilities, includes business case development, strategic projects, team building, change management projects, and in-depth discussions with business leaders from inside and outside the company. The young leaders who participate end up with a strong internal-external nexus of ties to support them as their careers evolve. Companies that recognize the importance of leadership networking can also do a lot to help people overcome their innate discomfort by creating natural ways for them to extend their networks.

When Nissan CEO Carlos Ghosn sought to break down crippling internal barriers at the company, he created cross-functional teams of middle managers from diverse units and charged them with proposing solutions to problems ranging from supply costs to product design.

Nissan subsequently institutionalized the teams, not just as a way to solve problems but also to encourage lateral networks. Rather than avoid the extra work, aspiring leaders ask for these assignments. Most professional development is based on the notion that successful people acquire new role-appropriate skills as they move up the hierarchy.

But making the transition from manager to leader requires subtraction as well as addition: To make room for new competencies, managers must rely less on their older, well-honed skills. To do so, they must change their perspective on how to add value and what to contribute.

Eventually, they must also transform how they think and who they are. Companies that help their top talent reinvent themselves will better prepare them for a successful leadership transition. Operating beside players with diverse affiliations, backgrounds, objectives, and incentives requires a manager to formulate business rather than functional objectives, and to work through the coalitions and networks needed to sell ideas and compete for resources.

Consider Sophie, a manager who, after rising steadily through the ranks in logistics and distribution, was stupefied to learn that the CEO was considering a radical reorganization of her function that would strip her of some responsibilities. Rewarded to date for incremental annual improvements, she had failed to notice shifting priorities in the wider market and the resulting internal shuffle for resources and power at the higher levels of her company.

Although she had built a loyal, high-performing team, she had few relationships outside her group to help her anticipate the new imperatives, let alone give her ideas about how to respond. After she argued that distribution issues were her purview, and failed to be persuasive, she hired consultants to help her prepare a counterproposal. Frustrated, Sophie contemplated leaving the company.


Successful leaders have a nose for opportunity and a knack for knowing whom to tap to get things done. These qualities depend on a set of strategic networking skills that nonleaders rarely possess. Most people acknowledge that networking—creating a fabric of personal contacts to provide support, feedback, insight, and resources—is an essential activity for an ambitious manager. For some, this is a distasteful reality. But even people who understand that networking is a legitimate and necessary part of their jobs can be discouraged by the payoff—because they are doing it in too limited a fashion. On the basis of a close study of 30 emerging leaders, the authors outline three distinct forms of networking. It involves cultivating stronger relationships with colleagues whose membership in the network is clear; their roles define them as stakeholders.

How Leaders Create and Use Networks

Switches , routers , and wireless access points are the essential networking basics. Through them, devices connected to your network can communicate with one another and with other networks, like the Internet. Switches, routers, and wireless access points perform very different functions in a network. Switches are the foundation of most business networks.


Networking hardware

Actively scan device characteristics for identification. Use precise geolocation data. Select personalised content.

Earn a free Open University digital badge if you complete this course, to display and share your achievement. Anyone can learn for free on OpenLearn, but signing-up will give you access to your personal learning profile and record of achievements that you earn while you study. Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available. All the networks you identified in Section 1 also have the potential to be useful in finding out about your sector.

In order to enhance your English Language skill, it is very essential to learn new words. Culture network Video Activity Book pages; Potenziamento activities The projects found in Unit 3 give the … To provide practice of writing brief social networking messages blog posts, comments, tweets, etc. From 'algorithm' to 'zip': A vocabulary list word bank of words and common phrases about computers. Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. The deep belief network pre … A wide area network is a larger network that covers a wider area. Download the large dictionary in PDF for free. Do the names Facebook, Instagram, or Twitter ring a bell?

A network consists of two or more computers that are linked in order to share resources such as printers and CDs , exchange files, or allow electronic communications. The computers on a network may be linked through cables, telephone lines, radio waves, satellites, or infrared light beams. It is generally limited to a geographic area such as a writing lab, school, or building. Computers connected to a network are broadly categorized as servers or workstations.

Used for everything from accessing the internet or printing a document to downloading an attachment from an email, networks are the backbone of business today. The smallest and most basic type of network, a PAN is made up of a wireless modem, a computer or two, phones, printers, tablets, etc. These types of networks are typically found in small offices or residences, and are managed by one person or organization from a single device.

Networking hardware , also known as network equipment or computer networking devices , are electronic devices which are required for communication and interaction between devices on a computer network. Specifically, they mediate data transmission in a computer network. Networking devices includes a broad range of equipment which can be classified as core network components which interconnect other network components, hybrid components which can be found in the core or border of a network and hardware or software components which typically sit on the connection point of different networks. The most common kind of networking hardware today is a copper-based Ethernet adapter which is a standard inclusion on most modern computer systems. Wireless networking has become increasingly popular, especially for portable and handheld devices.

Да, это. Он - лжец.

Поскольку компьютеры должны были выполнять операции в абсолютно точном порядке, самая мелкая ошибка могла иметь колоссальные последствия. Простая синтаксическая ошибка - если бы, например, программист по ошибке ввел вместо точки запятую - могла обрушить всю систему. Происхождение термина вирус всегда казалось Сьюзан весьма забавным. Этот термин возник еще во времена первого в мире компьютера Марк-1 - агрегата размером с комнату, построенного в 1944 году в лаборатории Гарвардского университета. Однажды в компьютере случился сбой, причину которого никто не мог установить.

 - Американец. - В… аэропорт. Aeropuerto, - заикаясь сказал Двухцветный. - Aeropuerto? - повторил человек, внимательно следя за движением губ Двухцветного в зеркале. - Панк кивнул.

Крик оборвался столь же внезапно, как и раздался. Затем наступила тишина. Мгновение спустя, словно в дешевом фильме ужасов, свет в ванной начал медленно гаснуть.

Chapter 1: What is a Network?
the pdf and pdf


  1. Angela G.

    Negative network effects can happen in two ways: network congestion increased usage and network pollution increased size.

    20.04.2021 at 23:34 Reply

Leave your comment


Subscribe Now To Get Daily Updates