File Name: properties and applications of ceramics .zip
Whilst the most extravagant claims of the s in favour of advanced ceramic materials such as the all ceramic engine have largely proved inaccurate, it is true to say that ceramics have established themselves as key engineering materials.
- Properties and Applications of Silicon Carbide Ceramics
- Bioactive Glass-ceramics: Processing, Properties and Applications
- Handbook of Advanced Ceramics
Properties and Applications of Silicon Carbide Ceramics
Maziar Montazerian. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. An advantage of the glass fritting route is that mixtures of compositions can be made and then formed into shapes and densified by sintering.
Sintering usually proceeds concurrently with crystallization, when the free surfaces of the glass frits encourage crystallization. Sinter-crystallization is the process followed in the manufacture of some glass-ceramics that show poor internal crystallization.
Sol-gel is a chemically-based method for producing glass-ceramics at much lower temperatures than the traditional processing methods described above. The first step is mixing the reagents in a solvent water or alcohol which forms a low viscosity sol. In the case of silicate-based bioactive glasses, the silicate reagent could be an alkoxide, such as tetraethyl orthosilicate TEOS , or similar.
If other components apart from silica are required in the glass composition, they are added to the sol either as other alkoxides or as salts, e. Prior to completion of the network formation, the sol can be applied as a coating, be pulled into a fiber, impregnated into a composite, formed into powders or cast into a mold with a precise shape and surface features.
Gelation occurs in the mold or on the surface of a substrate forming a solid object or a surface coating. The three-dimensional gel network is completely filled with liquid. Aging involves holding the gel in its liquid for several hours at 1C. This leads to homogenizing and re-precipitation of the solid network, which increases the thickness of the inter-particle necks and the density and strength of the gel. A gel is dried when the physically adsorbed water is completely eliminated from the pores.
This requires heating at controlled rates at temperatures of 1C. Powder or monolithic gels can be obtained after aging and drying steps. Stabilization of a dried gel is necessary to control the stability of the material. Thermal treatment in the range of 1C removes silanols Si-OH and decomposes sub-products, mainly nitrate ions. Stabilization also increases the density, strength and hardness of the gels and converts the gel to a glass with a structure similar to melt-derived glasses.
Finally, densification of gel-derived glasses, which is usually accompanied by some degree of crystallization, is completed in the range of 1C, leading to glass-ceramic development. Glass-ceramics normally contain a residual glassy phase and one or more embedded crystalline phases. The crystallinity varies between 0. The HCA phase that forms on bioactive glass-ceramics is chemically and structurally equivalent to the mineral phase of bone and teeth. This similarity is key to interfacial bonding.
The surface chemical reactions result in the formation of an HCA layer to which bone can bond. On immersion of a bioactive glass-ceramic in an aqueous body fluid-like solution, three general processes happen: leaching, dissolution and precipitation. These processes are illustrated schematically in Figure 2. Leaching is characterized by release of alkali or alkaline earth elements such as Na 1 or Ca 21 , which is accelerated by cation exchange with H 1 or H 3 O 1 ions Figure 2.
The release of networkmodifying ions is rapid for residual bioactive glasses. Network 4 ]. The rate of dissolution of silica depends very much on glass-ceramic composition and structure. In some cases, the dissolution of crystals e. In the precipitation stage, calcium and phosphate ions released from the glass-ceramic, together with those from the solution migrate to the surface and form a calcia-phosphate-rich CaP layer.
The calcium phosphate phase that accumulates in the gel surface is initially amorphous a-CaP Figure 2. It finally crystallizes to an HCA structure by incorporating carbonate anions from solution within the a-CaP phase.
However, the reader should be warned about the debate proposed by Bohner and Lemaitre 13 and Pan et al. They believe that the way these experiments are conducted requires major improvements. They have recommended several modifications through using arguments and the available facts. Spherical aggregates of HCA developed on the sample surface after immersion in simulated body fluid.
Hench 9 introduced an index of bioactivity as a measure of this. The I B varies between 0 and Bioactive materials with high I B values 10oI B o12 show soft tissue bonding.
To improve their mechanical strength, various types of glasses that undergo precipitation of different crystalline phases, known as bioactive glass-ceramics GCs , have been developed. Bioverit s containing apatite and 21 All these glassceramics are composed of an apatite-like crystalline phase and are much less soluble than Bioglass s 45S5. In , Peitl et al. They called their product Biosilicate s and demonstrated that controlled crystallization that led to a well-designed microstructure of a base glass could increase its average 4-point bending strength from 75 MPa to MPa.
This value is similar to that found for the A-W glass-ceramic MPa , which exhibits the best mechanical performance of all commercial bioactive glass-ceramics. Crystals embedded in glasses always produce a residual stress field.
When they reach a certain critical size, cracks may be spontaneously generated. In the particular case of Biosilicate s , cracks propagate within the residual glass phase and are deflected by 23,24 In this chapter, we will summarize the properties, applications and fabrication methods of the above-cited bioactive GCs in Section 2.
In addition to these commercially available bioactive GCs, there are promising GCs based on canasite-apatite, K-fluorrichterite, apatite-mullite, oriented apatite, chlorapatite, calcium pyrophosphate, rhenanite, etc. The history and issues associated with these bioactive GCs are also addressed in this section.
Magnetic bioactive GCs, radiopaque bioactive GCs, coatings, composites, scaffolds, gel-derived GCs and their relevant open issues will be briefly explained in Sections 2. Finally, possible developments and trends will be highlighted in Section 2. Commercial Bioactive Glass-ceramicsCommercial bioactive glass-ceramics, such as Cerabone s , Biosilicate s , Ceravital s and Bioverit s , are usually produced via the melting method.
The base glass compositions are designed in such a way that the desirable crystalline phases are evolved after the controlled heat treatments of nucleation and crystallization. We summarize the inventor, composition and crystalline phases contained in these glass-ceramics in Table 2.
A-W glass-ceramic, commercially available with the brand name Cerabone s , is the most extensively and successfully used bioactive glassceramic for bone replacement. Some years ago, Kokubo et al. The reader is encouraged to refer to the references in Table 2. Commercial glass-ceramics were originally developed to overcome one marked weakness of bioactive glasses-brittleness.
Therefore, their mechanical properties compared to bone were of great interest for scientists in this community. The mechanical properties of commercial GCs are summarized in Table 2. At a glance, comparison of the fracture toughness of commercial BGCs 0. The modulus of elasticity GPa is also higher than the desirable value of cortical bone GPa. Therefore, it seems that current commercial BGCs are prone to fracture or causing stress shielding in high load-bearing conditions.
However, at present, bioactive GCs are in several unique clinical applications which do not demand high fracture toughness. In this clinical study, patients received different desensitizing treatments, Sensodyne s , SensiKill s or Biosilicate s dispersed in a gel suspension or in a solution with distilled water. Over a period of 6 months, teeth were evaluated, and the study was performed using pain assessments patients used a visual analogue scale of pain, VAS, from 1 to Regarding the global diminution of pain over the course of the study, Biosilicate s mixed with distilled water displayed the greatest effect, and could alleviate the pain in the very first periods of the experiment, followed by SensiKill s , Sensodyne s and Biosilicate s dispersed in gel.
The results indicated that there was an improvement in the airbone gap r20 dB in all of the study groups, and all of the groups were statistically significant Pr0. It was concluded that an Otosilicate the name given to these special shapes of monolithic Biosilicate s pieces prosthesis is an effective substituent for ossicles, not only for its biological properties but also for its machinability.
The laboratory tests of patients who have completed the study have revealed no changes in vital organs. They were also followed up by computed tomography examinations, which showed no migration, formation of abscesses or inflammation around the implants. Therefore, numerous attempts have been made to overcome this drawback leading to the development of some promising bioactive GCs which will be addressed in the next section.
Miscellaneous Bioactive Glass-ceramicsIn addition to those well known bioactive GCs, other bioactive GCs have been proposed for improving different properties, such as strength or bioactivity. Table 2. We will also explain the history and issues regarding these bioactive GCs in the next few paragraphs. In the mids, R. Hill et al. There were no pH changes following immersion and no significant ion release into the SBF solution. However, they show osseointegration in vivo with no sign of fibrous capsule formation.
The in vitro and in vivo responses of this glass-ceramic depend on the presence of the crystalline and residual glass phases. The glass-ceramic which crystallized to apatite Bioactive Glass-ceramics: Processing, Properties and Applications but had not crystallized to mullite osseointegrated poorly. The sample crystallized to both apatite and mullite exhibited better osseointegration and evidence of osteoconduction. Increasing the apatite volume fraction in the glass appears to increase the osseointegration ability.
The residual glass phase may add to osseointegration by promoting apatite formation or may hinder osseointegration if the glass phase degrades and releases ions such as Al 31 , which are known to inhibit biological mineralization. In the case of aluminum-containing glass-ceramic compositions, it is important that all the aluminum ions be either locked away in a chemically inert glass phase or in a chemically inert crystalline phase even trace amounts of the order of 1 ppm of aluminum are known to inhibit the mineralization of a newly forming osteoid.
There is a belief that the SBF test proposed by Kokubo is applicable for bioactive glasses and A-W glass-ceramics, but its validity with regard to aluminum-containing glasses and glass-ceramics should be questioned.
Apatite-canasite glass-ceramics have high fracture toughness, up to 3.
Bioactive Glass-ceramics: Processing, Properties and Applications
This new handbook will be an essential resource for ceramicists. It includes contributions from leading researchers around the world and includes sections on Basic Science of Advanced Ceramics, Functional Ceramics electro-ceramics and optoelectro-ceramics and engineering ceramics. Chapter 7. Chapter It is primarily a handbook for those working with new cutting edge ceramic materials and processing technologies rather than traditional ceramics, since its focus is on certain types of non-traditional materials.
Handbook of Advanced Ceramics
Silicon Carbide Ceramics—1 pp Cite as. Silicon carbide is a promising candidate for high-temperature structural materials and wear-resistant materials. We have developed pressureless-sintered silicon carbide ceramics. The properties, applications and related technologies of silicon carbide ceramics are described.
Ceramic Properties. What is a Ceramic? The properties of ceramic materials, like all materials, are dictated by the types of atoms present, the types of bonding between the atoms, and the way the atoms are packed together.
Advanced ceramic materials are engineered to outperform metals and polymers. High performance mechanical strengths include hardness, wear, rigidity, density, fracture toughness, and other application-specific mechanical requirements that often exceed steel, alloys, and plastics. Our materials are harder than every metal and naturally-occurring material known, except diamond. The harder a material, the more resistant it is to localized permanent deformation from indentation or abrasion. Rigidity MPa Advanced ceramics are highly rigid and do not bend easily.
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