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- Sustainable Design
- Sustainability in Architecture: An Interdisciplinary Introduction
- Designing Sustainable Cities
- What is Green Urbanism? Holistic Principles to Transform Cities for Sustainability
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Download Free PDF. Tuan Giang. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. University Ave. These materials may be freely copied for educational purposes. Income vs. Traditionally, we measure Gross National Product GNP , which favors any economic activities and production, regardless of their true benefits and effect on long-term societal well-being. Even consumption, demolition, and waste that require further production are credited to a higher GNP.
In industrialized, capitalistic societies, consumption is regarded as a virtue. However, realizing the environmental threats, real or potential, to the quality of life, environmental movements have begun in virtually all sectors of industrialized countries, including business, manufacturing, transportation, agriculture, and architecture. Researchers are developing and refining methods of analyzing the true cost of an economic activity over its entire life cycle.
Developing countries tend to model their economic infra- structure after those of their industrialized counterparts. Today, economic activities in developing countries around the world, Pacific Rim countries in particular, are far more noticeable than two or three decades ago, and their share of the world economy is increasing. All quantitative economic indices such as per capita income, GNP, amount of foreign trade, and the amount of building construction indicate that their economies are strong and growing rapidly.
In the United States alone, billions of dollars have been spent cleaning up an environment subjected to uncontrolled development. The ecological havoc created by the former Soviet Union is only now beginning to be fully understood.
Developing countries would do well to learn from these situations, not emulate them. Resource Consumption and Environmental Pollution Resource consumption and economic status have a strong correlation. As the income level of a society increases, so does its resource consumption.
This is true for societies of virtually any size, be they families, cities, or entire countries. As USA shown in Figure 1, industrial countries with higher incomes consume more energy per capita than developing countries. This implies that it is plausible for a society to N Korea France Italy establish resource-efficient social and economic infrastructures Korea while raising its economic status.
Figure 1: Correlations between The correlation between per-capita income and per-capita per-capita incomes and per- water consumption reveals a similar pattern see Figure 2 , capita energy consumption as does the emission of environmental pollutants to the levels of selected industrialized and developing countries. Mexico France Germany This definition of sustainability does not specify the ethical UK roles of humans for their everlasting existence on the planet.
Korea It also fails to embrace the value of all other constituents 0 participating in the global ecosystem. It is predicted that the pattern of architectural resource USA intensity the ratio of per-capita architectural resource Per Capita Pollutant Production 20 consumption to per-capita income will generally follow the Canada same patterns as shown in Figure 1, 2, and 3.
For a household, the Brazil growth of incomes will lead to a desire for a larger house 10 Italy France Japan with more expensive building materials, furnishings and home appliances; more comfortable thermal conditions in Korea interior spaces; and a larger garden or yard.
At the early stage, site development and Figure 3: Correlations between construction influence indigenous ecological characteristics.
The procurement and manu- Steady-State Economics Washington: facturing of materials impact the global environment. Once Island Press, For instance, the energy and water used by its inhabitants produce toxic gases and sewage; the process of extracting, refining, and transporting all the resources used in building operation and maintenance also have numerous effects on the environment.
This in turn increases the combined impact of architecture on the global ecosystem, which is made up of inorganic elements, living organisms, and humans. The goal of sustainable design is to find architectural solutions that guarantee the well-being and coexistence of these three constituent groups.
The three levels of the framework Principles, Strategies, and Methods correspond to the three objectives of architectural environmental education: creating environmental awareness, explaining the building ecosystem, and teaching how to design sustainable buildings. The overall conceptual diagram for sustainable design is shown in Figure 4.
We propose three principles of sustainability in architecture. Economy of Resources is concerned with the reduction, reuse, and recycling of the natural resources that are input to a building. Life Cycle Design provides a methodology for analyzing the building process and its impact on the environ- ment.
Humane Design focuses on the interactions between humans and the natural world. These principles can provide a broad awareness of the environmental impact, both local and global, of architectural consumption. This allows them to further disaggregate and analyze specific methods architects can apply to reduce the environmental impact of the buildings they design. There is a continuous flow of resources, natural and manufactured, in and out of a building.
When examining a building, consider two streams of resource flow see Figure 5. Upstream, resources flow into the building as input to the building ecosystem. Downstream, resources flow out of the building as output from the building ecosystem. In a long run, any resources entered into a building ecosystem will eventually come out from it. This is the law of resource flow conservation.
For a given resource, its forms before entry to a building and after exit will be different. This transformation from input to output is caused by the many mechanical processes or human interventions rendered to the resources during their use in buildings.
The three strategies for the economy of resources principle are energy conservation, water conservation, and material conservation.
Each focuses on a particular resource necessary for building construction and operation. Energy Conservation After construction, a building requires a constant flow of energy input during its operation. The environmental impacts of energy consumption by buildings occur primarily away from the building site, through mining or harvesting energy sources and generating power.
The energy consumed by a building in the process of heating, cooling, lighting, and equipment operation cannot be recovered. The type, location, and magnitude of environmental impacts of energy consumptions in buildings differ depending on the type of energy delivered. Nuclear power plants produce radioactive wastes, for which there is currently no permanent management solution.
Hydropower plants each require a dam and a reservoir which can hold a large body of water; construction of dams results in discontinuance of river ecosystems and the loss of habitats for animals and plants. Water Conservation A building requires a large quantity of water for the purposes of drinking, cooking, washing and cleaning, flushing toilets, irrigating plants, etc.. All of this water requires treatments and delivery, which consume energy. The water that exits the building as sewage must also be treated.
Material Conservation A range of building materials are brought onto building sites. The influx of building materials occurs primarily during the construction stage. The waste generated by the construction and installation process is significant. After construction, a low-level flow of materials continues in for maintenance, replacement, and renovation activities.
Consumer goods flow into the building to support human activities. All of these materials are eventually output, either to be recycled or dumped in a landfill. The problem with this model is that it is too narrowly defined: it does not address environmental issues related to the pro- curement and manufacturing of building materials or waste management reuse and recycling of architectural resources.
LCD is based on the notion that a material transmigrates from one form of useful life to another, with no end to its usefulness.
For the purpose of conceptual clarity, the life cycle of a building can be categorized into three phases: pre-building, building, and post-building, as shown in Figure 7. These phases are connected, and the boundaries between them are not obvious. The phases can be developed into LCD strategies that focus on minimizing the environmental impact of a building. Pre-Building Phase Figure 7: The sustainable building life cycle. The procurement of building materials impacts the environ- ment: harvesting trees could result in deforestation; mining mineral resources iron for steel; bauxite for aluminum; sand, gravel, and limestone for concrete disturbs the natural envi- ronment; even the transport of these materials can be a highly polluting activity, depending on their weight and distance from the site.
The manufacturing of building products also requires energy and creates environmental pollution: for example, a high level of energy is required to manufacture steel or aluminum products.
In the sustainable-design strategy, we examine the construction and operation processes for ways to reduce the environmental impact of resource consumption; we also consider long-term health effects of the building environment on its occupants.
Post-Building Phase This phase begins when the useful life of a building has ended. In this stage, building materials become resources for other buildings or waste to be returned to nature. For more information on this topic, see Recycling and Reuse of Building Materials. Each phase of building life cycle is associated with two groups of ecological elements: site and building see Figure 8.
The principal domain of architectural design is in the building phase, but sustainable building can be achieved by finding ways to minimize environmental impacts during all three phases of building life cycle. While economy of resources and life cycle design deal with efficiency and conservation, humane design is concerned with the livability of all constitu- ents of the global ecosystem, including plants and wildlife.
This principle arises from the humanitarian and altruistic goal of respecting the life and dignity of fellow living organisms. Further examination reveals that this principle is deeply rooted in the need to preserve the chain elements of the ecosystems that allow human survival. Remember the performance factor of design. When a product saves energy, does it perform as well as what it is replacing?
And how does it affect the performance of building occupants? For instance, early fluorescent lighting systems were more efficient than their incandescent counterparts; however, some fluorescents were known to buzz.
A general rule of thumb in such comparisons is that the annual energy bill of a typical office building amounts to around five hours of employee labor cost; therefore, any building energy conservation strategy that annually reduces productivity by more than five hours per employee defeats its purpose.
Urban Design and Site Planning Neighborhoods, cities, and entire geographic regions can benefit from cooperative planning to reduce energy and water demands. The result can be a more pleasant urban environment, free of pollution and welcoming to nature.
Human Comfort As discussed previously, sustainable design need not preclude human comfort. Design should enhance the work and home environments. This can improve productivity, reduce stress, and positively affect health and well-being.
Sustainability in Architecture: An Interdisciplinary Introduction
Every year, more cities are feeling the devastating impacts of this situation. What means do we have as designers to address this challenging reality? For decades now, reminders have come from many sources about the difficulties that face us and our environment. The Brundtland Report of , scientific studies on the impact of global warming, and former U. But a growing concern for the environment is matched by a great deal of skepticism and resistance. The United States has not only failed to ratify the Kyoto Protocol, it is also, along with Canada and many of the Gulf States, among the largest per capita users of energy resources. The failure of the Copenhagen Summit to produce a legally binding agreement further confirms the scale of the challenges that lie ahead.
The Minor in Sustainable Architecture and Planning SARP provides undergraduate students with a multidisciplinary approach to understanding sustainability of the built environment. The curriculum emphasizes an awareness of responsible practices at a variety of scales impacting the built environment: buildings, communities, architectural systems, global resource management, and social equity. Students will become aware of responsible architectural design and develop critical thinking skills to address the multifaceted issues facing the profession today. The structure of the minor encourages students to gain a broad understanding before advancing to specialized areas of interest. Coursework includes six 6 credit hours at the introductory level and level courses and nine 9 credit hours in specialized subjects, three of which must be at an advanced level and level courses for a minimum total of 15 credit hours. At least three of the nine hours must be at the level.
Metrics details. In this article the future of sustainable urbanism is discussed. In current times a complex of uncertainties demands sustainable environments. Three uncertainties are distinguished. Firstly, the city needs to deal with uncertain developments, such as the impacts of climate change. Secondly, urban environments are the place where deliberate uncertainties, such as the generation of renewable energy and other sustainability transitions must find a place. The third form of uncertainty is the increased exposure of urban populations to the impacts of a spectrum of uncertain developments, climate impacts.
problems. SMART GROWTH, GREEN BUILDING AND NEW URBANISM each enduring set of principles for creating more sustainable neighborhoods, build-.
Designing Sustainable Cities
He is a Landscape Architect and an internationally renowned design-expert on sustainable urbanism, climate adaptation, energy landscapes and urban agriculture. He has previously held positions at universities in the Netherlands and Australia, State and Municipal governments and design consultancies. Rob developed the Swarm Planning concept, a dynamic way of planning the city for future adaptation to climate change impacts. Rob has designed and led over 30 design charrettes around the world, involving communities, academics, governments and industries in design processes for more resilient communities.
What is Green Urbanism? Holistic Principles to Transform Cities for Sustainability
Before developing medications for an epidemic, one solution is to go back to the physical and built environment to reduce its impact. Epidemics have transformed our built environment because of the fear of infection. Consequently, architecture and urbanism after the Covid epidemic will never be the same.
Basic engineering concepts on energy, carbon footprint, and materials properties. An elementary background on architecture and urbanism is preferred. This course offers an interdisciplinary approach to sustainabilityin Architecture.
enduring set of principles for creating more sustainable neighborhoods, buildings and regions. They have provided guidance to policy makers, plan ners, urban.
Architecture Design Pdf. This model includes 9 elements. Sponsored by the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture, Study Architecture brings together colleges and universities, students and working architecture professionals to create a forum for sharing.
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