Five Kingdoms Of Life And Basis Of Classification Pdf
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The Five Kingdoms of Life
Living things are identified and categorised on the basis of their body design in relation to their form and function. So, the classification of life forms is closely related to their evolution whereas living organisms have been classified variously according to different criteria.
In the same Whittaker in classified living organisms into following five kingdoms or broad categories. In , Margulius and Schwartz revised the five kingdom classification. It includes one prokaryote and four eukaryote kingdoms- the Protocista, the Fungi, the Plantae and the Animalia.
This Scheme is widely accepted. Out of the two Archae is more ancient. They derive their energy for metabolic activities, from the oxidation of chemical energy sources like reduced gases — Ammonia, methane or hydrogen sulphide.
In the presence of these chemicals it can manufacture their own amino acids acid proteins. They are further divided in to three groups: Methanogens manufacture methane , Thermoacidophiles Favour extremely hot and acidic environments , and Halophiles grow in very salty environment. Nucleoid serves as a single chromosome.
This group includes many kinds of unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as unicellular algae, protozoans and unicellular fungi. Some of these organisms use appendages ie hair like structure cilia like in paramecium or whip-like flagellum e. Their mode of nutrition can be autotrophic Unicellular algae, diatoms or heterotrophic protozoans.
Examples: Unicellular algae, chlorella, Euglena, Trypanosoma causes sleeping sickness ,Amoeba, Plasmodium, Paramecium, Chlamydomonas etc. They are heterotrophic and eukaryotic organisms. Some fungi are parasites can draw nutrients from living cells of their host- plants like Puccinia, Ustilago etc. Some are decomposers like Penicillium etc and saprophytes derive their nourishment from dead remains of plants and animals. The body of multicellular and filamentous is called mycelium and composed of several thread like structures called hyphae.
Examples: Bread mold, Yeast, sponge, mushroom, rust, smut etc. Kingdom Plantae. To meet our Jury, click here. The Five Kingdoms of Life The main aim of a taxonomy study is to assign organism an appropriate place within the systematic framework of classification and this framework is known as taxonomic hierarchy by which the taxonomic groups are arranged in a definite order, from higher to lower categories. A category is called taxon and used in the classification of plants or animals as kingdom, phylum, class, order, genus and species.
Wayne's Word. Noteworthy Plants. Biology Kingdom Monera [10, species]: Unicellular and colonial--including the true bacteria eubacteria and cyanobacteria blue-green algae. Kingdom Plantae [, species]: Haplo-diploid life cycles, mostly autotrophic, retaining embryo within female sex organ on parent plant.
The biological classification system of life introduced by British zoologist Thomas Cavalier-Smith involves systematic arrangements of all life forms on earth. Following and improving the classification systems introduced by Carl Linnaeus , Ernst Haeckel , Robert Whittaker , and Carl Woese , Cavalier-Smith's classification attempts to incorporate the latest developments in taxonomy. Cavalier-Smith has published extensively on the classification of protists. One of his major contributions to biology was his proposal of a new kingdom of life: the Chromista , although the usefulness of the grouping is questionable given that it is generally agreed to be an arbitrary polyphyletic grouping of taxa. He also proposed that all chromista and alveolata share the same common ancestor, a claim later refuted by studies of morphological and molecular evidence by other labs. He named this new group the Chromalveolates.
Whittaker proposed an elaborate five kingdom classification – Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia. The main criteria of the five kingdom classification were cell structure, body organisation, mode of nutrition and reproduction, and phylogenetic relationships.
Five Kingdom Classification System
Once upon a time, all living things were lumped together into two kingdoms, namely plants and animals at least, that's how I learned it. Animals included every living thing that moved, ate, and grew to a certain size and stopped growing. Plants included every living thing that did not move or eat and that continued to grow throughout life. It became very difficult to group some living things into one or the other, so early in the past century the two kingdoms were expanded into five kingdoms: Protista the single-celled eukaryotes ; Fungi fungus and related organisms ; Plantae the plants ; Animalia the animals ; Monera the prokaryotes. Many biologists now recognize six distinct kingdoms, dividing Monera into the Eubacteria and Archeobacteria.
In this section learners are introduced to the most common way of grouping living organisms based on simple distinctive characteristics. Classification systems are always changing as new information is made available. Modern technologies such as electron microscopy make it possible to observe microscopic organisms in greater detail.