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- The anatomy and physiology of pain
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- Anatomy and physiology of chronic scrotal pain
The scrotum is a pigmented external sac of skin and muscle that physically protects and facilitates temperature regulation of the testes to ensure optimal spermatogenesis. It is formed from fusion of the left and right labioscrotal folds, and has a septum that separates the two halves Figure 1. The layers of the scrotum are continuation of the abdominal wall layers Table 1. The testis, epididymis, and spermatic cord are housed within the scrotum. Other than being attached to the base of the scrotum by the gubernaculum to prevent torsion, the testes are free to move around.
The anatomy and physiology of pain
Textbook of Tinnitus pp Cite as. Pain has many forms, and the perception of pain is affected by many factors including actual circumstances expectation, stress, and the emotional state of the person. Pain may be divided into two large groups: pain that is caused by direct stimulation physical or chemical of specific receptors nociceptors and pain that is not caused by stimulation of nociceptors. There is also a third kind of pain in which activation of neural plasticity plays an important role.
Stimulation of nociceptors that are located in the skin, the cornea, tooth pulp, muscles, joints, peripheral nerves, the respiratory system, and viscera causes acute pain that has both a fast and a slow component. Pain can also be caused by trauma or inflammatory processes generated in nerves or in the nervous system and not from activation of specific pain receptors. Expression of neural plasticity can create pain central neuropathic pain that is caused by neural activity in the brain without peripheral input.
The sympathetic nervous system can modulate the sensitivity of nociceptors and the transmission of pain signals in the spinal cord and the trigeminal nucleus. Activation of neural plasticity can also cause change in processing of nociceptor-elicited pain signals causing hyperpathia exaggerated and prolonged response to painful stimuli and allodynia painful sensation from light touch of the skin.
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Clin Neurophysiol — Arch Phys Med Rehab — Yakhnitsa V, B Linderoth and BA Meyerson Spinal cord stimulation attenuates dorsal horn hyperexcitability in a rat model of mononeuropathy. Pain — Neurology — Am Pain Soc J — The biological basis for mind body interaction. Prog Brain Res — Neurol Res —8. PubMed Google Scholar. Pain —7. Tanimoto T, M Takeda and SS Matsumoto Suppressive effect of vagal afferents on cervical dorsal horn neurons responding to tooth pulp electrical stimulation in the rat.
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NCBI Bookshelf. Pain is a subjective experience with two complementary aspects: one is a localized sensation in a particular body part; the other is an unpleasant quality of varying severity commonly associated with behaviors directed at relieving or terminating the experience. Pain has much in common with other sensory modalities National Academy of Sciences, First, there are specific pain receptors. These are nerve endings, present in most body tissues, that only respond to damaging or potentially damaging stimuli. Second, the messages initiated by these noxious stimuli are transmitted by specific, identified nerves to the spinal cord. The sensitive nerve ending in the tissue and the nerve attached to it together form a unit called the primary afferent nociceptor.
Jump to content. Pain plays an important in the survival of all animals. It acts as a signal, alerting us to potential tissue damage, and leads to a wide range of actions to prevent or limit further damage. Physiologically, pain occurs when sensory nerve endings called nociceptors also referred to as pain receptors come into contact with a painful or noxious stimulus. The resulting nerve impulse travels from the sensory nerve ending to the spinal cord, where the impulse is rapidly shunted to the brain via nerve tracts in the spinal cord and brainstem.
In spite of its subjective nature, most pain is associated with tissue damage and has a physiological basis. Not all tissues, however, are sensitive to the same type of injury. For example, although skin is sensitive to burning and cutting, the visceral organs can be cut without generating pain. Overdistension or chemical irritation of the visceral surface, however, will induce pain. Some tissues do not give rise to pain, no matter how they are stimulated; the liver and the alveoli of the lungs are insensitive to almost every stimulus.
Pain is a somatic and emotional sensation which is unpleasant in nature and associated with actual or potential tissue damage. Physiologically, the function of pain is critical for survival and has a major evolutionary advantage. This is because behaviours which cause pain are often dangerous and harmful, therefore they are generally not reinforced and are unlikely to be repeated.
Anatomy and physiology of chronic scrotal pain
Many nurses have a poor understanding of pain and its management, which can result in failure to treat pain effectively. This section outlines the basic anatomy and physiology of pain. Acute pain is a physiological response that warns us of danger. The process of nociception describes the normal processing of pain and the responses to noxious stimuli that are damaging or potentially damaging to normal tissue. There are four basic processes involved in nociception McCaffery and Pasero,
Textbook of Tinnitus pp Cite as. Pain has many forms, and the perception of pain is affected by many factors including actual circumstances expectation, stress, and the emotional state of the person. Pain may be divided into two large groups: pain that is caused by direct stimulation physical or chemical of specific receptors nociceptors and pain that is not caused by stimulation of nociceptors. There is also a third kind of pain in which activation of neural plasticity plays an important role. Stimulation of nociceptors that are located in the skin, the cornea, tooth pulp, muscles, joints, peripheral nerves, the respiratory system, and viscera causes acute pain that has both a fast and a slow component. Pain can also be caused by trauma or inflammatory processes generated in nerves or in the nervous system and not from activation of specific pain receptors.
Две эти команды разделяло меньше одной минуты, но она была уверена, что разговаривала с коммандером больше минуты. Сьюзан просмотрела все команды. То, что она увидела, привело ее в ужас. С интервалом в три минуты была зарегистрирована вторая серия команд запирания-отпирания. Согласно регистру, кто-то открывал ее компьютер, пока ее не было в комнате. Но это невозможно. У нее перехватило дыхание.
A complex set of pathways transmits pain messages from the periphery to the central nervous system, where control occurs from higher centres. Primary afferent.
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Хейл должен был умереть - за страну… и честь. Агентство не может позволить себе еще одного скандала. Стратмору нужен был козел отпущения. Кроме всего прочего, Хейл был настоящим ходячим несчастьем, готовым свалиться на голову в любую минуту. Из задумчивости Стратмора вывел звонок мобильного телефона, едва слышный в завывании сирен и свисте пара. Не останавливаясь, он отстегнул телефон от брючного ремня. - Говорите.
Она показала на экран.