soap powders and detergents pdf

Soap Powders And Detergents Pdf

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The detergent industry is highly competitive, mostly recession proof, and, thanks to chemistry, always changing ever so slightly. It has been years, however, since cleaning chemistry has been the driving force in detergent innovation. Instead, the environment rules in laundry rooms and kitchens.

Kanerva's Occupational Dermatology pp Cite as. Household, personal, and industrial products contain detergents which play an important role in everyday life. The most important ingredients of detergents are surfactants which display surface-tension-lowering properties so water can expand to wet surface, increasing washing effectiveness.

Keeping up with detergent chemistry

A bleach-free laundry detergent composition containing zero-valent iron nanoparticles. A small amount of nanoparticles with a size range of about nm to about nm replace the bleach and consequently the bleach activator in the laundry detergent composition. These nanoparticles are capable of oxidization which makes them an appropriate alternative for the bleach in a laundry detergent. Provisional Patent Application Ser. This application has been sponsored by the Iranian Nanotechnology Initiative Council, which does not have any rights in this application.

This application generally relates to a laundry detergent composition, and more particularly relates to a bleach-free laundry detergent composition containing nanoparticles. A machine powder detergent generally includes anionic and cationic surfactants, builders, fillers, bleaches, activators, soaps, essence, and performance enhancing substances, such as optical brighteners, enzymes, and other components. Bleaches are well-known compositions commonly found in formulations associated with washing machine powders, dishwasher powders, and hard surface cleaners.

They remove chromophores through an oxidization mechanism. Bleaches are commonly either chlorine-based or peroxide-based. For example, trichloroisocyanuric acid, having the formula C 3 Cl 3 N 3 O 3 , is a chlorinated bleach agent used both as a whitener and a disinfectant. It is more stable than sodium hypochlorite solution. Since it is highly oxidant, special attention must be paid to safety guidelines when using it. Trichloroisocyanuric acid and its sodium salt, sodium dichloroisocyanurate, are used as chlorination agents, disinfectants, and industrial antiseptics and antifungals.

Peroxide-based bleaches, also called active oxygen bleaches, include sodium perborate, sodium percarbonate, and urea peroxide. Sodium perborate acts as a source of active oxygen in many detergents and cleaning products, and releases active oxygen at high temperatures, but it also amplifies the growth of aquatic plants when released in the environment. This reduces oxygen in the water and results in the death of aquatic organisms.

Sodium percarbonate, an adduct of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide, releases H 2 O 2 and sodium carbonate when dissolved in water. The resulting solution has an alkaline pH, which activates the H 2 O 2 for bleaching. Sodium percarbonate can also be used in household detergents, disinfectants, and food bleaching materials. Peroxide-based bleaches are activated only at high temperatures or in the presence of activators.

These activators, also known as bleach precursors, often come in the form of esters or carboxylic acid amides. In washing liquids, hydrogen peroxide anions react with the ester or amide and produce peroxy of the acid, which then oxidizes the stained substrate.

However, DAED is not easily hydrolyzed, and is prone to biological decomposition. The produced peracetate oxidizes the stains and is converted to acetate. An assessment of the underlying kinetics of the bleaching process reveals that the reaction depends on pH and to some extent on temperature. Today, peroxide bleaches are generally used in detergent industries. This type of bleach, as mentioned above, is activated only at high temperatures. High temperatures, however, increase the inherent energy consumption and also damage the textiles being washed.

In order to be able to use these caustic bleaches at lower temperatures, expensive activators, such as the aforesaid TAED, must be used. There is, accordingly, a present need to provide improved compositions for use in washing machine powders, dishwasher powders, and hard surface cleaners. It is, therefore, an object of the present invention to provide improved compositions that ameliorate or eliminate the destructive properties inherent in commercial and consumer bleaches, particularly those employing peroxides at high temperatures.

It is also an object of the present invention to completely remove bleaches from detergents and like products, offering bleach-free cleaning compositions.

These objects are met in various embodiments of the present invention where there is a significant reduction in damage to textiles and other materials when cleaned in the cleaning compositions of the present invention. As a result of this advancement in the technology, clothes and other materials can be cleaned without fear of damage to the clothes caused by the cleaning process itself, which is a constant worry of countless millions of consumers employing bleach-based products.

Accordingly, the improved, bleach-free compositions of the present invention offer significant advantages over the known prior art. A bleach-free laundry detergent composition containing zero-valent iron nanoparticles is disclosed. A small amount of nanoparticles, with a size range of about nm to about nm, replace the bleach, and, consequently, the bleach activator in laundry detergent compositions.

These nanoparticles are capable of oxidization, which makes them an appropriate alternative for the corrosive bleach in a laundry detergent. While the specification concludes with claims particularly pointing out and distinctly claiming the subject matter that is regarded as forming the present invention, it is believed that the invention will be better understood from the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying DRAWINGS, where like reference numerals designate like structural and other elements, in which:.

The following detailed description is presented to enable any person skilled in the art to make and use the invention. For purposes of explanation, specific nomenclature is set forth to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention. However, it will be apparent to one skilled in the art that these specific details are not required to practice the invention. Descriptions of specific applications are provided only as representative examples.

Various modifications to the preferred embodiments will be readily apparent to one skilled in the art, and the general principles defined herein may be applied to other embodiments and applications without departing from the scope of the invention. The present invention is not intended to be limited to the embodiments shown, but is to be accorded the widest possible scope consistent with the principles and features disclosed herein.

As discussed hereinabove, the present invention addresses the serious and long-time problems associated with employing bleach agents, such as used in laundry detergent compositions, especially peroxide-based bleaching materials. Applicant has found that a small amount of nanoparticles, with a size range of about nm to about nm, can entirely replace bleaches and bleach agents in laundry detergent compositions. The bleach-free compositions of the instant invention thus enable the use of laundry detergent powders at normal temperatures, not elevated temperatures, which reduces the energy consumption.

Also, elimination of high temperatures results in less damage to the textiles and other materials being cleaned or washed. Regarding the efficacy of the improved compositions set forth herein, the most immediate outcome of downscaling particles to nanoscale is the large increase of overall contact area. When the surface-to-volume ratio of the particles increases, atoms located at the surface have greater impact on the physical properties of the particles compared to those residing inside the volume of the particles, which are covered.

This greatly improves the reactivity of the nanoparticles. Furthermore, nanoscaling a particle changes its ionization potential. Studies reveal that smaller particles have higher ionization potentials. In other words, the bigger the particles become, the smaller their ionization potential.

Increased surface-to-volume ratios and changes in the geometry and electronical structure heavily influence the chemical reactions of the material. At nano scale, quantities such as surface-to-volume ratio and potential energy rise considerably. These changes have a great impact on the capabilities of the product. In a preferred embodiment, zero-valent iron nanoparticles nZVI with an average size of nm to nm, such as illustrated in FIG.

It should be understood that nZVI particles have high surface activity, due to their specific area, and thus they are unique catalysts. Furthermore, nZVI is Redox active and produces active oxygen with high reactivity. This is exactly what is expected from a bleach in machine powder formulations, and the reason they are so employed. Among its other properties, Applicant has found that nZVI absorbs organic dyes, which amplifies the bleaching effect. Accordingly, nZVI is used as a reducing agent and as a catalyst for detoxification of various pollutants, such as solvents, chlorinated organic pesticides, polychloride biphenyls, nitrates and heavy metals.

It should be understood that nZVI must be kept from contact with oxidants, acids, halogens, water and moisture. Furthermore, products employing nZVI must be stored in cool and dry places. It should further be understood that nZVI particles can also act as an optical brightener in a laundry powder, e. An energy jump occurs and other wavelengths are dispersed. This gives the product the capability of also acting as an optical brightener.

The present invention has an additional advantage of being environmentally friendly. Whereas sodium perborate, a routinely-used bleach in the industry that deleteriously amplifies the growth of aquatic plants, reduces oxygen in the water, and results in the death of aquatic organisms, the present invention can avoid all of these downsides simply by replacing sodium perborate with a small amount of nZVI. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the level of zero-valent iron nanoparticles present in detergent compositions of the present invention is preferably from about 0.

Further, the detergent compositions of the present invention preferably contain at least one detergent surfactant, will generally contain at least one detergency builder, and may optionally contain other active ingredients to enhance performance and properties, as is understood in the art. Surfactants that may be employed with the present invention include anionic surfactants, nonionic surfactants, and mixtures thereof.

Suitable anionic surfactants useful herein include any of the conventional anionic surfactant types. In a more specific embodiment, linear alkyl benzene sulfonate is used as an anionic surfactant.

Other anionic surfactants suitable for use with the invention are well-known to those skilled in the art. Suitable nonionic surfactants useful herein include any of the conventional nonionic surfactant types. In a more specific embodiment poly oxy ethylene 9 nonyl phenol ether is used as a nonionic surfactant.

The detergent compositions of the instant invention will generally also contain one or more detergency builders. The zeolite may be commercially-available zeolite 4A, as now widely-used in laundry detergent powders.

It should, of course, be understood that alternative builders and zeolites may be employed in practicing the principles of the present invention. It should further be understood that the aforesaid list of materials set forth hereinabove is not meant to be exhaustive. To produce machine detergent powders in a first illustrative embodiment of the present invention, the first step is to add the active component Linear Alkyl Benzene or LABSNa to stearic acid.

This results in a smooth paste. Then the paste is mixed with sodium sulfate, sodium silicate and sodium tripolyphosphate. Sufficient time is given to the sodium tripolyphosphate for hydration, as is understood in the art.

Being exposed to the hot air rising through the tower, the paste dries by the time it reaches the bottom and turns into a white powder. Then, the powder is sieved to leave out any possible trash or impuirities. Then, to complete the formulation, sodium perborate or Sodium percarbonate as the bleach , TAED as the activator, essence and other optional materials are added.

The powder is ready for packaging. In the present invention, however, nanoparticles are added to the powder exactly at the same time when the bleach and bleach activator are supposed to be added. Therefore, the conventional process of production remains unchanged. To compare the new product with the control powder, performance tests have been run.

First, two series of Swiss-standard spots called EMPA with codes , , , , , , and , corresponding to soiling, carbon black, sebum, blood, cocoa, blood-milk-carbon black, and spots of two different substances without optical brightener, respectively, were cut in 6 by 6 cm pieces.

Then 4 g of the blank powder and 4 g of the new powder are weighed separately using a scale to an accuracy of 4 decimal places.

Now, each of the two cylindrical containers of the Tergotometer is filled with 1 L of ppm hard water. Then, powders are added.


It is convenient to split past trends in detergent manufacture into three periods: the s, the early s, and more recent trends. In this review, the focus is on this decade, in which the detergent industry has implemented the most fundamental changes in process technology of these decades. At the same time, however, these changes can be better appreciated by understanding i the limitations of the spray-drying process as the industry's traditional workhorse and ii the driving forces for change. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. Capeci, S. Google Scholar. Herman de Groot, W.

US20150133358A1 - Bleach-free laundry powder detergent with nanoparticles - Google Patents

They are already part of the routine of thousands of people worldwide. For a higher power of cleaning of the detergent, today, are added phosphates, the main responsible for environmental problems. Legislation and guidelines about the other components of the formula of cleaners still missing. Even the term biodegradable can be best placed on the diversity of products currently entitled biodegradable.

But if the soap itself was crap, no fancy packaging could redeem it. Quality assurance of pharmaceuticals : a compendium of guidelines and related materials. Drug and narcotic control — standards 2.

But if the soap itself was crap, no fancy packaging could redeem it. Quality assurance of pharmaceuticals : a compendium of guidelines and related materials. Drug and narcotic control — standards 2. Drug industry — standards 3.

Synthetic detergents: 100 years of history

Laundry detergent

Laundry detergent , or washing powder , is a type of detergent cleaning agent used for cleaning laundry. Laundry detergent is manufactured in powder and liquid form. While powdered and liquid detergents hold roughly equal share of the worldwide laundry detergent market in terms of value, powdered detergents are sold twice as much compared to liquids in terms of volume. From ancient times, chemical additives were used to facilitate the mechanical washing of textile fibres with water. The earliest recorded evidence of the production of soap-like materials dates back to around BC in ancient Babylon. Such detergents were mainly used in industry until after World War II.

Healthy Cleaning This section is intended to be a valuable information resource about cleaning products for consumers, educators, students, media, government officials, businesses and others. Water, the liquid commonly used for cleaning, has a property called surface tension.

The first soaps were manufactured in ancient times through a variety of methods, most commonly by boiling fats and ashes. Archeologists excavating sites in ancient Babylon have found evidence indicating that such soaps were used as far back as B. By the second century A. In Europe, the use of soap declined during the Middle Ages. However, by the fifteenth century, its use and manufacture had resumed, and an olive-oil based soap produced in Castile, Spain, was being sold in many parts of the known world. Castile soap, which is still available today, has retained its reputation as a high-quality product. During the colonial period and the eighteenth century, Americans made their own soap at home, where most continued to produce it until soap manufacture shifted away from individual homes to become an industry during the s.

stimulat€d research on detergents. s. Ultra (superconcentrated) powder and liquid. Ultra fabric softeners. Automatic dishwasher gels.

Modern methods of detergent manufacture

A bleach-free laundry detergent composition containing zero-valent iron nanoparticles. A small amount of nanoparticles with a size range of about nm to about nm replace the bleach and consequently the bleach activator in the laundry detergent composition. These nanoparticles are capable of oxidization which makes them an appropriate alternative for the bleach in a laundry detergent. Provisional Patent Application Ser.

Однако тот не подавал никаких признаков жизни. Сьюзан перевела взгляд на помост перед кабинетом Стратмора и ведущую к нему лестницу. - Коммандер.

 Какие-нибудь новости, Сьюзан? - спросил Стратмор и тут же замолчал, увидав Грега Хейла.  - Добрый вечер, мистер Хейл.  - Он нахмурился, глаза его сузились.  - Сегодня суббота. Чем мы обязаны.

Laundry Detergent

Ноги несли его с такой быстротой, на какую, казалось ему, он не был способен. Когда он влетел во вращающуюся дверь, прозвучал еще один выстрел. Стеклянная панель обдала его дождем осколков. Дверь повернулась и мгновение спустя выкинула его на асфальт.

На мгновение она словно приросла к месту, не зная, куда бежать и что делать. Интуиция подсказывала ей спасаться бегством, но у нее не было пароля от двери лифта. Сердце говорило ей, что она должна помочь Стратмору, но. Повернувшись в полном отчаянии, она ожидала услышать шум смертельной борьбы на полу, но все было тихо. Все вдруг сразу же смолкло: как если бы Хейл, сбив коммандера с ног, снова растворился в темноте.

Протянула руку и нажала на кнопку. Экран погас. ГЛАВА 39 Росио Ева Гранада стояла перед зеркалом в ванной номера 301, скинув с себя одежду.

Он побледнел и вытер рукавом пот со лба. - Директор, у нас нет выбора.

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  1. Mason R.

    Own business Urdu Hindi A public You Tube channel for business tip's The use of soap and detergent powder comes first to the number after eating.

    19.04.2021 at 06:34 Reply
  2. Miranda V.

    Soap-powders and Detergents. The first World Detergent Congress (Paris, September ) had the effect of authorizing the world to yield to Omo euphoria: not.

    20.04.2021 at 10:42 Reply

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