Comparison Between Solid Liquid And Gaseous Fuels Pdf
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- Difference Between Solid, Liquid and Gas
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Difference Between Solid, Liquid and Gas
Salgansky, V. Kislov, S. Glazov, M. Yields of liquid and gaseous products of the filtration combustion of cellulose, wood, peat, coal, and rubber have been investigated. Experiments have shown that the gasification of solid fuels in the regime with superadiabatic heating yields liquid hydrocarbons with quantity and quality, which are close to those produced using other methods, for example, by pyrolysis. But in this case no additional energy supply is needed to carry out the gasification process.
The low calorific combustible gas, which forms in this process, contains a substantial quantity of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which are components of syngas. Major advantages of the fossil solid fuels such as oil shale, brown coal, and peat are their relative abundance and availability of deposits in developed regions and often a previously underused built mining industry.
However, these fuels have drawbacks, which hamper their extensive using in power generation. The first is low efficiency of the Rankin steam cycle. The disadvantages of low energy efficiency, problems with fly ash, and high yield of toxic combustion products can be overcome by applying of a two-stage processing scheme, the gasification of a solid fuel at the first stage and further using of the fuel gas and liquid pyrolysis products at the second stage.
Investigations in this direction are actively performed all over the world [ 1 — 3 ]. At the filtration combustion FC , when a solid fuel and an oxidant gas move in opposite directions relative to the combustion front, the fuel is preheated and subjected to pyrolysis. As a result, droplets of liquid products tars and gaseous products form a combustible mist. Depending on a set of control parameters, the thermal structure of the combustion wave and the combustion temperature can vary widely.
The yield of pyrolysis products in different combustion regimes can also vary considerably. The measurement of the yield and the composition of products of the thermal destruction of solid fuels become important points for studies. The liquid hydrocarbons formed at the pyrolysis of solid fuels can become a promising feedstock for new processes of conversion into valuable chemical products.
The method of the FC in the regime with superadiabatic heating is proposed for the gasification of solid fuels [ 4 ]. The gasification of solid fuels is accompanied by the formation of syngas components and pyrolysis tars. The syngas might be used for making of liquid hydrocarbons using the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. But the liquid products should be processed additionally via hydrogenation or hydrocracking to be converted into jet kerosene or diesel fuels.
The method for gasification, the FC with superadiabatic heating, allows performing in a single reactor both the gasification and the pyrolysis processes [ 4 ]. It does not require a complicated and costly gas cleansing system the formation of toxic combustion products is reduced by 10— times compared with direct combustion. An important advantage of this process is that relatively cheap substandard fuels and some industrial wastes can be used.
Conversion of these fuels and wastes to synthetic liquid and gaseous fuels, which are more convenient for further use, can be economically and ecologically favorable.
In this case, valuable oil and natural gas could be replaced by local and much cheaper fuels. The object of this study was to determine yields of gaseous and liquid products of the gasification by FC for several typical solid fuels. Effects of the fuel particles size, the ash content, the humidity, and other parameters on yields of products of the gasification were studied. Before starting of the research it is expedient to consider some advantages and disadvantages of the solid fuels and industrial wastes, in order to highlight ones most suitable for the production of liquid hydrocarbons by the FC in the regime with superadiabatic heating.
Technologies and processing methods for production of liquid hydrocarbons liquid fuels or other valuable products from shale have been developing for a long time and achieved some substantial progress. Liquid products obtained by processing such fuels have long been valuable raw material for the chemical industry as well as for the manufacturing of synthetic motor fuels. For all types of coals common drawbacks are relatively high content of harmful admixtures and low yield of liquid products formed during the processing.
For both brown and substandard coals the main drawbacks are relatively high humidity and ash content. Their advantages are the reproducibility, the availability nearly in all regions, and absence of environmentally harmful admixtures. Their drawbacks are low calorific value and, as a rule, high humidity. This can lead to the corrosion of certain parts and components of the equipment [ 1 ].
Advantages of peat include its availability, relatively low contents of ash, and environmentally harmful admixtures. It also could be considered as a renewable resource. The calorific values of peat and liquid hydrocarbons formed from it are slightly higher than that of wood and wood tars. The main drawback is the high natural humidity of peat, and it may be also noted that formed products organic acids, ammonia are very aggressive.
On top of that the ash of many types of peat is low melting [ 6 ]. Rubber is widely used in everyday life and industry.
Currently, various technologies for processing of rubber wastes are developing very fast. The main drawback which is typical for all products containing sulfur of produced liquid hydrocarbons is the presence of toxic and foul-smelling volatile compounds which cause environmental problems during thermal processing [ 7 ].
Each of these materials is available in sufficient quantity to give a feedstock for a small-scale power generation or chemical industry. The yield of produced liquid hydrocarbons at the thermal processing of these materials is amply high, and for each type of these liquid hydrocarbons, there are methods of treatment with recovering valuable chemical components and production of lubricating oils or motor fuels.
A set of new improved methods are being developed currently [ 8 — 12 ]. Figure 1 schematically presents the experimental setup. The outer surface of the reactor was provided with a radiation screen to reduce heat losses The tar collection system was attached to the top of the reactor.
The description of the tar collection system is given in Figure 1. Before the experiment crumbs of crashed chamotte bricks were placed in the lower part of the reactor and topped with an igniter composition—1. The studied mixture of the combustible material with some solid inert material was placed atop the igniter composition.
The process was initiated by the electric heater 18 which was wound around the outer surface in the lower part of the reactor. That resulted in the inflammation of the igniter composition and further FC of the mixture under investigation. Thus, the FC wave formed and propagated upwards. The upper end of the reactor was connected with a flange 3 and with a tube which directs the formed aerosol a mixture of gas, steam, fine droplets of tars, and other organic substances to a tars collection system.
Three schemes of the tars collection system, which separate liquid products of gasification, were tested. The first one was a simplest two-stage cooling of the product gas using water coolers. The second scheme assumed a one-step cooling with the intensive contact of the product gas with a cold surface.
This can compensate the drawback of the low yield of liquid products, because the water should have been removed before further treatment. The third scheme of collecting of liquid products has advantages of both the above-mentioned ones and was found to be the most successful. The scheme is presented in Figure 1. It comprises a mechanical tar separator 7 , whose operation is based on the throttling of the aerosol through a narrow nozzle, where the thickening of liquid products from the aerosol takes place.
Gasification products from the outlet of the reactor passed consecutively through the tar separator 7 and then through two water coolers 9 and 11 in order to assess the effectiveness of the separator. The tar was mainly collected in a flask 8 after the tar separator. There was mostly water with a small content of organics in flasks 10 and The gas at the outlet of the liquid products collection system was burnt by an afterburner Combustible gas was supplied to the afterburner through the bottom flange.
The air required for gas combustion was fed into the burner through a quartz tube. The air-gas mixture was ignited using electric heater After the experiment, the solid combustion products were unloaded from the reactor.
It comprised crumbs of the solid inert material practically unchanged and a small amount of ash. Collected liquid products were weighed, then dried in a desiccator, and reweighed. After that it was analyzed by burning in oxygen. During each experiment, temperature profiles were being recorded and gaseous products were sampled.
The particle size of the inert material was equal to that of the fuel. The porosity of initial packed bed was 0. The studied fuels were oil shale Leningrad deposit , brown coal Tula region , wood, cellulose cotton cloth , peat Ukraine, Vinnitsa region, and Belarus, Minsk region , and rubber.
Air was used as an oxidant in all experiments. The heating rate and the temperature in the pyrolysis zone are the main factors which influence thermal decomposition of fuels.
It is known that, regardless of other conditions, an increase in the temperature of pyrolysis always enhances the degradation of fuel [ 5 ]. At the same final temperature, the more rapid heating, the higher tar yield and the lower yield of char residue. For the FC of solid fuels the yield of products significantly depends on the content of combustibles in the mixture. This is due to the fact that the regime of heating changes in the forefront of the combustion wave where fuel decomposes.
This can be shown most clearly on the example of wood which we most often used in our experiments including during the test of tar collecting system. Figure 2 shows the diagram of the adiabatic combustion temperature curve 1 and the temperature in the center curve 2 and on the wall curve 3 of the reactor and the heating rate of wood particles curve 4 versus wood content in the mixture.
The temperatures at the reactor wall were significantly lower than those in the center of the reactor due to lateral heat loss. In this range effective conditions of heat recovery are implemented and the combustion temperature exceeds the adiabatic temperature. Further increase in the wood content causes slight decrease in the combustion temperature.
As shown earlier in [ 13 ], the thermocouple indicates the temperature of the solid phase, so we use these values to calculate the heating rate of fuel. After getting into the combustion zone, it mainly converts to CO 2 and water.
As the wood content in the mixture grows, the temperature in the combustion front also grows and the heating rate subsides, so the pyrolysis of the wood proceeds deeper and the yield of the coke decreases. The contents of hydrogen and oxygen in the coke also decrease; thereby the amount of water formed during the coke combustion decreases too. With the further increase in the wood content the charcoal formed becomes almost pure carbon and its yield does not change.
The liquid products contain heavy tars, most soluble tars, an amount of other organic substances, and water. The main part of liquid products condensed when it passes through a narrow aperture with a high speed in the turbulent regime and then collected in a two-necked flask see Figure 1. Next, the gas entered into the water coolers, where the condensation of remaining soluble tars occurred as well as other organic compounds mainly acetic acid and water.
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Answer · Solid Fuel Liquid Fuel Gaseous Fuel 1. Easy to transport 1. Requires less storage space 1. Clean in use. 2. Convenient to store 2. Clean burning fuels.
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Learning Objectives. Solids and liquids are collectively called condensed phases because their particles are in virtual contact. The two states share little else, however. In the solid state, the individual particles of a substance are in fixed positions with respect to each other because there is not enough thermal energy to overcome the intermolecular interactions between the particles. As a result, solids have a definite shape and volume.
Applied Chemistry pp Cite as. The combustion process is usually an oxidation reaction involving oxygen and the oxidant and is in many cases in the gaseous state. Thus, the burning candle or the alcohol burner are examples of solid and liquid fuels burning in the gaseous state. Coal however does not volatilize and the combustion of many solids, including some plastics, occurs at the surface.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Coal is currently a major source of fuel for power generation, industrial heat, and, on a smaller scale, manufacture of coke and by-product coal tar. In the mid to long-term, anticipated increases in the cost of natural gas and petroleum relative to coal are expected to increase the incentive for expanded efforts to convert coal to ash-free, low-sulfur transportation fuels and, ultimately, gaseous fuels for domestic use see Chapter 3. As natural gas prices increase, substitution of gas from coal in natural gas-fired power generation plants may become economic. Advanced combined-cycle and fuel cell power generation technologies will also require the conversion of coal to clean gaseous fuels. In addition to the above major uses, economical use of clean gaseous and liquid products from coal can provide a source of feedstock for chemicals production.
Liquid fuels are combustible or energy-generating molecules that can be harnessed to create mechanical energy , usually producing kinetic energy ; they also must take the shape of their container. It is the fumes of liquid fuels that are flammable instead of the fluid. Most liquid fuels in widespread use are derived from fossil fuels ; however, there are several types, such as hydrogen fuel for automotive uses , ethanol, and biodiesel , which are also categorized as a liquid fuel.
Salgansky, V. Kislov, S. Glazov, M. Yields of liquid and gaseous products of the filtration combustion of cellulose, wood, peat, coal, and rubber have been investigated. Experiments have shown that the gasification of solid fuels in the regime with superadiabatic heating yields liquid hydrocarbons with quantity and quality, which are close to those produced using other methods, for example, by pyrolysis. But in this case no additional energy supply is needed to carry out the gasification process. The low calorific combustible gas, which forms in this process, contains a substantial quantity of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which are components of syngas.
Expert Answer: Hi,. On the basis of their physical state, fuels are classified into solid fuels, liquid fuels and gaseous fuels. Solid.
Everything that surrounds us, such as air, food, water, plants, animals, vehicles, clothes and so forth is made up of matter. The matter is a collection of particles and is anything that has mass and occupies space. There are three fundamental states of matter, i. The size and shape of a solid object is definite.
There are two main types of rockets: liquid-fuel and solid-fuel. Liquid-fuel rockets consist of a fuel and oxygen or other oxidizer in liquid state. They are combined in a combustion chamber and ignited. The fuel flow to the engine can be controlled, the amount of thrust produced can be regulated and the engine can be turned off or on as needed.
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work. The concept was originally applied solely to those materials capable of releasing chemical energy but has since also been applied to other sources of heat energy such as nuclear energy via nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. The heat energy released by reactions of fuels is converted into mechanical energy via a heat engine. Other times the heat itself is valued for warmth, cooking , or industrial processes, as well as the illumination that comes with combustion. Fuels are also used in the cells of organisms in a process known as cellular respiration , where organic molecules are oxidized to release usable energy.
Applied Chemistry pp Cite as. Fuels are conveniently classified as solids, liquids, and gaseous fuels. Solid fuels include peat, wood, and coal and can encompass solid rocket fuels as well as metals.