File Name: electric motors and drives .zip
Electric Motors and Drives is intended for non-specialist users of electric motors and drives, filling the gap between theory-based academic textbooks and the more prosaic 'handbooks', which provide useful detail but little opportunity for the development of real insight and understanding. The book explores all of the widely-used modern types of motor and drive, including conventional and brushless D. Austin Hughes' approach, using a minimum of maths, has established Electric Motors and Drives as a leading guide for engineers, and the key to a complex subject for a wider readership, including technicians, managers and students.
Electric Motors and Drives
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most electric motors operate through the interaction between the motor's magnetic field and electric current in a wire winding to generate force in the form of torque applied on the motor's shaft. Electric motors can be powered by direct current DC sources, such as from batteries, or rectifiers , or by alternating current AC sources, such as a power grid, inverters or electrical generators.
An electric generator is mechanically identical to an electric motor, but operates with a reversed flow of power, converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. Electric motors may be classified by considerations such as power source type, internal construction, application and type of motion output.
In addition to AC versus DC types, motors may be brushed or brushless , may be of various phase see single-phase , two-phase , or three-phase , and may be either air-cooled or liquid-cooled. General-purpose motors with standard dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial use.
The largest electric motors are used for ship propulsion, pipeline compression and pumped-storage applications with ratings reaching megawatts. Electric motors are found in industrial fans, blowers and pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools and disk drives.
Small motors may be found in electric watches. In certain applications, such as in regenerative braking with traction motors , electric motors can be used in reverse as generators to recover energy that might otherwise be lost as heat and friction.
Electric motors produce linear or rotary force torque intended to propel some external mechanism, such as a fan or an elevator. An electric motor is generally designed for continuous rotation, or for linear movement over a significant distance compared to its size.
Magnetic solenoids produce significant mechanical force, but over an operating distance comparable to their size. Transducers such as loudspeakers and microphones convert between electrical current and mechanical force to reproduce signals such as speech. When compared with common internal combustion engines ICEs , electric motors are lightweight, physically smaller, provide more power output, are mechanically simpler and cheaper to build, while providing instant and consistent torque at any speed, with more responsiveness, higher overall efficiency, and lower heat generation.
However, electric motors are not as convenient or common as ICEs in mobile applications i. The first electric motors were simple electrostatic devices described in experiments by Scottish monk Andrew Gordon and American experimenter Benjamin Franklin in the s.
This law was discovered independently by Charles-Augustin de Coulomb in , who published it so that it is now known with his name. A free-hanging wire was dipped into a pool of mercury, on which a permanent magnet PM was placed. When a current was passed through the wire, the wire rotated around the magnet, showing that the current gave rise to a close circular magnetic field around the wire. Barlow's wheel was an early refinement to this Faraday demonstration, although these and similar homopolar motors remained unsuited to practical application until late in the century.
After Jedlik solved the technical problems of continuous rotation with the invention of the commutator , he called his early devices "electromagnetic self-rotors". Although they were used only for teaching, in Jedlik demonstrated the first device to contain the three main components of practical DC motors: the stator , rotor and commutator. The device employed no permanent magnets, as the magnetic fields of both the stationary and revolving components were produced solely by the currents flowing through their windings.
The first commutator DC electric motor capable of turning machinery was invented by British scientist William Sturgeon in The motors ran at up to revolutions per minute, and powered machine tools and a printing press. Several inventors followed Sturgeon in the development of DC motors, but all encountered the same battery cost issues. As no electricity distribution system was available at the time, no practical commercial market emerged for these motors.
It developed remarkable mechanical output power. His motor set a world record, which Jacobi improved four years later in September In , Jedlik built a device using similar principles to those used in his electromagnetic self-rotors that was capable of useful work.
A major turning point came in , when Antonio Pacinotti first described the ring armature although initially conceived in a DC generator, i. A benefit to DC machines came from the discovery of the reversibility of the electric machine, which was announced by Siemens in and observed by Pacinotti in In , Frank Julian Sprague invented the first practical DC motor, a non-sparking device that maintained relatively constant speed under variable loads.
Other Sprague electric inventions about this time greatly improved grid electric distribution prior work done while employed by Thomas Edison , allowed power from electric motors to be returned to the electric grid, provided for electric distribution to trolleys via overhead wires and the trolley pole, and provided control systems for electric operations.
This allowed Sprague to use electric motors to invent the first electric trolley system in —88 in Richmond, Virginia , the electric elevator and control system in , and the electric subway with independently powered centrally-controlled cars.
The latter were first installed in in Chicago by the South Side Elevated Railroad , where it became popularly known as the " L ". Sprague's motor and related inventions led to an explosion of interest and use in electric motors for industry. The development of electric motors of acceptable efficiency was delayed for several decades by failure to recognize the extreme importance of an air gap between the rotor and stator.
Efficient designs have a comparatively small air gap. Louis motor, long used in classrooms to illustrate motor principles, is extremely inefficient for the same reason, as well as appearing nothing like a modern motor. Electric motors revolutionized industry. Industrial processes were no longer limited by power transmission using line shafts, belts, compressed air or hydraulic pressure. Instead, every machine could be equipped with its own power source, providing easy control at the point of use, and improving power transmission efficiency.
Electric motors applied in agriculture eliminated human and animal muscle power from such tasks as handling grain or pumping water. Household uses like in washing machines, dishwashers, fans, air conditioners and refrigerators replacing ice boxes of electric motors reduced heavy labor in the home and made higher standards of convenience, comfort and safety possible.
Today, electric motors consume more than half of the electric energy produced in the US. The first alternating-current commutatorless induction motor was invented by Galileo Ferraris in Ferraris was able to improve his first design by producing more advanced setups in Possible industrial development was envisioned by Nikola Tesla , who invented independently his induction motor in and obtained a patent in May In the same year, Tesla presented his paper A New System for Alternating Current Motors and Transformers to the AIEE that described three patented two-phase four-stator-pole motor types: one with a four-pole rotor forming a non-self-starting reluctance motor , another with a wound rotor forming a self-starting induction motor , and the third a true synchronous motor with separately excited DC supply to rotor winding.
One of the patents Tesla filed in , however, also described a shorted-winding-rotor induction motor. Scott to help Tesla; however, Tesla left for other pursuits in Lamme later developed a rotating bar winding rotor. Steadfast in his promotion of three-phase development, Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky invented the three-phase induction motor in , of both types cage-rotor and wound rotor with a starting rheostat, and the three-limb transformer in After an agreement between AEG and Maschinenfabrik Oerlikon, Doliwo-Dobrowolski and Charles Eugene Lancelot Brown developed larger models, namely a hp squirrel cage and a hp wound rotor with a starting rheostat.
These were the first three-phase asynchronous motors suitable for practical operation. At the Frankfurt International Electrotechnical Exhibition, the first long distance three-phase system was successfully presented. The General Electric Company began developing three-phase induction motors in In an electric motor, the moving part is the rotor, which turns the shaft to deliver the mechanical power.
The rotor usually has conductors laid into it that carry currents, which interact with the magnetic field of the stator to generate the forces that turn the shaft. Alternatively, some rotors carry permanent magnets, and the stator holds the conductors. The rotor is supported by bearings , which allow the rotor to turn on its axis. The bearings are in turn supported by the motor housing. The motor shaft extends through the bearings to the outside of the motor, where the load is applied.
Because the forces of the load are exerted beyond the outermost bearing, the load is said to be overhung. The stator is the stationary part of the motor's electromagnetic circuit and usually consists of either windings or permanent magnets.
The stator core is made up of many thin metal sheets, called laminations. Laminations are used to reduce energy losses that would result if a solid core were used. Resin-packed motors, used in washing machines and air conditioners, use the damping properties of resin plastic to reduce noise and vibration. These motors completely encapsulate the stator in plastic.
The distance between the rotor and stator is called the air gap. The air gap has important effects, and is generally as small as possible, as a large gap has a strong negative effect on performance. It is the main source of the low power factor at which motors operate.
The magnetizing current increases with the air gap. For this reason, the air gap should be minimal.
Very small gaps may pose mechanical problems in addition to noise and losses. Windings are wires that are laid in coils , usually wrapped around a laminated soft iron magnetic core so as to form magnetic poles when energized with current.
Electric machines come in two basic magnet field pole configurations: salient- and nonsalient-pole configurations. In the salient-pole machine the pole's magnetic field is produced by a winding wound around the pole below the pole face.
In the nonsalient-pole , or distributed field, or round-rotor, machine, the winding is distributed in pole face slots. Some motors have conductors that consist of thicker metal, such as bars or sheets of metal, usually copper , alternatively aluminum. These are usually powered by electromagnetic induction. A commutator is a mechanism used to switch the input of most DC machines and certain AC machines.
It consists of slip-ring segments insulated from each other and from the shaft. The motor's armature current is supplied through stationary brushes in contact with the revolving commutator, which causes required current reversal, and applies power to the machine in an optimal manner as the rotor rotates from pole to pole. In light of improved technologies in the electronic-controller, sensorless-control, induction-motor, and permanent-magnet-motor fields, externally-commutated induction and permanent-magnet motors are displacing electromechanically-commutated motors.
A DC motor is usually supplied through a slip ring commutator as described above. AC motors' commutation can be achieved using either a slip ring commutator or external commutation, can be fixed-speed or variable-speed control type, and can be synchronous or asynchronous type.
Universal motors can run on either AC or DC. DC motors can be operated at variable speeds by adjusting the DC voltage applied to the terminals or by using pulse-width modulation PWM. AC motors operated at a fixed speed are generally powered directly from the grid or through motor soft starters.
AC motors operated at variable speeds are powered with various power inverter , variable-frequency drive or electronic commutator technologies. The term electronic commutator is usually associated with self-commutated brushless DC motor and switched reluctance motor applications.
Electric motors operate on three different physical principles: magnetism , electrostatics and piezoelectricity. In magnetic motors, magnetic fields are formed in both the rotor and the stator. The product between these two fields gives rise to a force, and thus a torque on the motor shaft. One, or both, of these fields must be made to change with the rotation of the motor.
We cover the complete range of industrial motors — synchronous as well as asynchronous: from standard electric motors through servomotors for motion control applications up to high voltage and DC motors. This is all based on more than years of experience. In the meantime, Siemens electric motors are an integral component of Digital Enterprises. Extremely reliable and flexible electric motors in the power range up to MW and above. Siemens induction motors for motion control are highly dynamic and precise.
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most electric motors operate through the interaction between the motor's magnetic field and electric current in a wire winding to generate force in the form of torque applied on the motor's shaft. Electric motors can be powered by direct current DC sources, such as from batteries, or rectifiers , or by alternating current AC sources, such as a power grid, inverters or electrical generators. An electric generator is mechanically identical to an electric motor, but operates with a reversed flow of power, converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. Electric motors may be classified by considerations such as power source type, internal construction, application and type of motion output. In addition to AC versus DC types, motors may be brushed or brushless , may be of various phase see single-phase , two-phase , or three-phase , and may be either air-cooled or liquid-cooled.
This fourth edition is again intended primarily for nonspecialist users or students of electric motors and drives. From the outset the aim has been to bridge the gap between specialist textbooks which are pitched at a level which is too academic for the average user and the more prosaic handbooks which are full of detailed information but provide little opportunity for the development of any real insight. We intend to continue what has been a successful formula by providing the reader with an understanding of how each motor and drive system works, in the belief that it is only by knowing what should happen and why that informed judgements and sound comparisons can be made. It identified several new topics needed to bring the work up to date, but these areas were not ones that the original author AH was equipped to address, having long since retired. Fortunately, one of the reviewers WD turned out to be a willing co-author: he is not only an industrialist and author with vast experience in the field, but, at least as importantly, shares the philosophy that guided the first three versions. We enjoy collaborating and hope and believe that our synergy will prove of benefit to our readers.
Skip to Main Content. A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions. Characterization of electric motor drives for traction applications Abstract: The ideal characteristics of an electric motor drive for traction application in an electric and hybrid electric vehicle are high torque at low speed region for fast acceleration, hill climbing and obstacle negotiation, and low torque at high speed for normal driving.
The book explores all of the widely-used modern types of motor and drive, including conventional and brushless D. The third edition includes additional diagrams and worked examples throughout. New topics include digital interfacing and control of drives, direct torque control of induction motors and current-fed operation in DC drives. The material on brushless servomotors has also been expanded. You all must have this kind of questions in your mind.
Written for non-specialist users of electric motors and drives, this book explains how electric drives work and compares the performance of the main systems, with many examples of applications. The author's approach - using a minimum of mathematics - has made this book equally popular as an outline for professionals and an introductory student text. Austin Hughes was a long-time member of the innovative motors and drives research team at the University of Leeds, UK, and has established a reputation for an informal style that opens up complex subjects to a wide readership, including students and managers as well as technicians and engineers.
Он солгал. Бринкерхофф не знал, что на это ответить. - Ты утверждаешь, что Стратмор намеренно запустил в ТРАНСТЕКСТ вирус. - Нет! - отрезала .
Глаза ее были затуманены. - Танкадо успел отдать его за мгновение до смерти. Все были в растерянности. - Ключ… - Ее передернуло. - Коммандер Стратмор отправил кого-то в Испанию с заданием найти ключ.
Additional information on SIMOTICS industrial motors
- Предложение. - Да. Я могу прямо сейчас отвести вас в участок… - Беккер выразительно замолчал и прищелкнул пальцами. - Или?. - спросил немец с расширившимися от страха глазами.
Расстрельная камера, мысленно усмехнулся. Халохот оценил расстояние до входа.
Отчаяние. Сожаление. Снова и снова тянется его рука, поблескивает кольцо, деформированные пальцы тычутся в лица склонившихся над ним незнакомцев.
Из задумчивости Стратмора вывел звонок мобильного телефона, едва слышный в завывании сирен и свисте пара. Не останавливаясь, он отстегнул телефон от брючного ремня. - Говорите.
Джабба почувствовал, что она медлит с ответом, и снова нахмурился. - Ты так не считаешь.
Руки на стол, - бросила она через плечо. - Когда я уйду, пожалуйста, никаких глупостей. И у стен есть. Бринкерхофф опустился на стул, слушая, как стук ее каблуков затихает в конце коридора. По крайней мере Мидж не станет болтать.
- Он взял у Джаббы мобильный телефон и нажал несколько кнопок. - Мидж, - сказал. - Говорит Лиланд Фонтейн.
- Я полагаю, у этого алгоритма меняющийся открытый текст.