endocrine glands and their hormones table pdf

Endocrine Glands And Their Hormones Table Pdf

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The endocrine system is made up of the endocrine glands that secrete hormones. Although there are eight major endocrine glands scattered throughout the body, they are still considered to be one system because they have similar functions, similar mechanisms of influence, and many important interrelationships. Some glands also have non-endocrine regions that have functions other than hormone secretion. For example, the pancreas has a major exocrine portion that secretes digestive enzymes and an endocrine portion that secretes hormones. The ovaries and testes secrete hormones and also produce the ova and sperm.

Hormones and the Endocrine System

Human endocrine system , group of ductless glands that regulate body processes by secreting chemical substances called hormones. Hormones act on nearby tissues or are carried in the bloodstream to act on specific target organs and distant tissues. Diseases of the endocrine system can result from the oversecretion or undersecretion of hormones or from the inability of target organs or tissues to respond to hormones effectively.

It is important to distinguish between an endocrine gland, which discharges hormones into the bloodstream, and an exocrine gland , which secretes substances through a duct opening in a gland onto an external or internal body surface. Salivary glands and sweat glands are examples of exocrine glands. Both saliva, secreted by the salivary glands, and sweat, secreted by the sweat glands, act on local tissues near the duct openings.

In contrast, the hormones secreted by endocrine glands are carried by the circulation to exert their actions on tissues remote from the site of their secretion. As far back as bce , the ancient Chinese were able to diagnose and provide effective treatments for some endocrinologic disorders. For example, seaweed, which is rich in iodine , was prescribed for the treatment of goitre enlargement of the thyroid gland. Perhaps the earliest demonstration of direct endocrinologic intervention in humans was the castration of men who could then be relied upon, more or less, to safeguard the chastity of women living in harems.

During the Middle Ages and later, the practice persisting well into the 19th century, prepubertal boys were sometimes castrated to preserve the purity of their treble voices.

This knowledge led to an abiding interest in restoring or enhancing male sexual powers. In the 18th century, London-based Scottish surgeon, anatomist, and physiologist John Hunter successfully transplanted the testis of a rooster into the abdomen of a hen. The transplanted organ developed a blood supply in the hen, though whether masculinization occurred was unclear. In German physiologist Arnold Adolph Berthold performed a similar experiment, except, instead of hens, he transplanted rooster testes into capons castrated roosters.

The capons subsequently regained secondary sex characteristics, demonstrating that the testes were the source of a masculinizing substance.

His conclusions were based in part on observations obtained after he had injected himself with an extract of the testicle of a dog or of a guinea pig. These experiments resulted in the widespread use of organ extracts to treat endocrine conditions organotherapy. Modern endocrinology largely originated in the 20th century, however.

Later, American physiologist Walter Bradford Cannon — used the term homeostasis to describe this inner constancy. This control system permits the prime functions of living organisms—growth, development, and reproduction—to proceed in an orderly, stable fashion; it is exquisitely self-regulating, so that any disruption of the normal internal environment by internal or external events is resisted by powerful countermeasures.

When this resistance is overcome, illness ensues. Human endocrine system Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Print print Print. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.

Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Robert D. See Article History. The principal glands of the female and male human endocrine systems.

The endocrine system is a complex system of glands that secrete hormones throughout the body. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Load Next Page.

Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

The pituitary gland or hypophysis is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0. It is a protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain , and rests in a small, bony cavity sella turcica covered by a dural fold diaphragma sellae. The pituitary is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by the median eminence via a small tube called the infundibular stem or pituitary stalk. Reduces smooth muscle contractions and blood flow within the intestine. Enhances effects of cholecystokinin , stops production of gastric juice. Release of bile from gallbladder , hunger suppressant. The pancreas is a heterocrine gland as it functions both as an endocrine and as an exocrine gland.

Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

Human endocrine system , group of ductless glands that regulate body processes by secreting chemical substances called hormones. Hormones act on nearby tissues or are carried in the bloodstream to act on specific target organs and distant tissues. Diseases of the endocrine system can result from the oversecretion or undersecretion of hormones or from the inability of target organs or tissues to respond to hormones effectively. It is important to distinguish between an endocrine gland, which discharges hormones into the bloodstream, and an exocrine gland , which secretes substances through a duct opening in a gland onto an external or internal body surface.

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А теперь, если не возражаешь… - Стратмор не договорил, но Чатрукьян понял его без слов. Ему предложили исчезнуть. - Диагностика, черт меня дери! - бормотал Чатрукьян, направляясь в свою лабораторию.  - Что же это за цикличная функция, над которой три миллиона процессоров бьются уже шестнадцать часов. Он постоял в нерешительности, раздумывая, не следует ли поставить в известность начальника лаборатории безопасности. Да будь они прокляты, эти криптографы.

Human endocrine system

Беккер застыл в дверях, не зная, как поступить. Необходимо было срочно что-то придумать. - Con permiso! - крикнул санитар.

Когда он ее нашел, каблук его ботинка громко ударился о кафельную плитку пола. Сьюзан почувствовала, как напряглось все его тело. Они вступили в опасную зону: Хейл может быть где угодно. Вдали, за корпусом ТРАНСТЕКСТА, находилась их цель - Третий узел. Сьюзан молила Бога, чтобы Хейл по-прежнему был там, на полу, катаясь от боли, как побитая собака.

Эта организация создавалась с единственной целью - обеспечивать безопасность страны. При этом дерево иногда приходится потрясти, чтобы собрать подгнившие плоды.

Стратмор пожал плечами. - Танкадо выехал из Японии. Он собирался следить за ходом аукциона по телефону. Но нам известно, где .

 Нет! - отрезала.  - Не думаю, что он знал, что имеет дело с вирусом. Я думаю, он был введен в заблуждение. Бринкерхофф молчал.

Тени повсюду.

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3 Comments

  1. Roy Q.

    Principles of auditing 3rd edition pdf building the gymnastic body pdf

    11.04.2021 at 10:05 Reply
  2. Jesualdo T.

    Endocrine Community.

    11.04.2021 at 22:22 Reply
  3. Exundono

    A more complete listing of the endocrine glands Exocrine Glands and Endocrine glands All hormones act by binding to their receptors.

    17.04.2021 at 04:40 Reply

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